Figure 1.

Preclinical drug development stages. Following identification of a drug target and candidate compounds, several early activities, such as pharmacology, in vivo efficacy, and experimental toxicology, can contribute to the selection of a lead candidate for preclinical development. These preclinical activities provide the basis for an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to the FDA for permission to initiate clinical testing in humans. ADME, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion; API, active pharmaceutical ingredient; PK, pharmacokinetics; Prep, preparation; Tox, toxicity.

Steinmetz and Spack BMC Neurology 2009 9(Suppl 1):S2   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-9-S1-S2