Table 1

Multimodal criteria for the detection of abnormal findings in the internal jugular veins and in azygos vein/vertebral veins by using 2 noninvasive and 2 invasive imaging techniques
Vein territory DS criteria for abnormal findings MRV criteria for abnormal findings CV criteria for abnormal findings IVUS criteria for abnormal findings
IJVs - VH criteria 1 - presence of reflux/bidirectional flow in both sitting and supine positions - Absent or pinpoint flow on axial TOF or TRICKS - presence of significant stenosis (defined as venous lumen reduction ≥50 %) - presence of significant stenosis (defined as venous lumen reduction ≥50 %)
and/or with or without with or without and/or
- VH criteria 3 - presence of B-mode abnormalities (web, flap, membrane, malformed valve, septum) or CSA ≤0.3 cm2 - presence of collateral veins (external jugular veins, anterior jugular veins, facial veins, thyroid veins and deep cervical veins) - presence of collateral veins (either epidural plexus or anterior and external jugular veins, not along the spinal cord) - presence of various intra-luminal defects (webs, fibrotic annulus-like constrictions, flaps, septa, multiple channels)
and/or and/or
- VH criteria 4 - absence of detectable flow - presence of IHFD and DPL
and/or and/or
- VH criteria 5- negative CSA - reduced respiratory pulsatility
Azygos vein/ VVs - VH criteria 1 - presence of reflux/bidirectional flow in both sitting and supine positions in VVs - Absence of detectable flow in VVs - presence of significant stenosis (defined as venous lumen reduction ≥50 %) in azygos vein - presence of significant stenosis (defined as venous lumen reduction ≥50 %) in azygos vein
and/or with or without and/or
- VH criteria 4 - absence of detectable flow in VVs - presence of collateral veins (either epidural or other collaterals) - presence of various intra-luminal defects (webs, fibrotic annulus-like constrictions, flaps, septa, multiple channels)
and/or
- presence of IHFD and DPL
and/or
- reduced respiratory pulsatility

Legend: IJVs - internal jugular veins; VVs - vertebral veins; DS - Doppler sonography: MRV - magnetic resonance venography; CV - catheter venography; IVUS - intravascular ultrasound; VH - venous hemodynamic criteria; CSA - cross-sectional area; IHFD - intra-luminal hyperechoic filling defect; DPL - double parallel lumen.

Zivadinov et al.

Zivadinov et al. BMC Neurology 2013 13:151   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-13-151

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