Figure 1.

Doppler sonography venous hemodynamic (VH) criteria for diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). A. VH criteria 1 - Reflux or bidirectional flow noted in the internal jugular vein (IJV) with the head in supine and upright position, B. VH criteria 3 - B-mode anomaly and/or stenosis: septum noted in the lower IJV and stenosis noted in the left IJV with a cross sectional area (CSA) ≤0.3 cm2; C. VH criteria 4 - No flow detected in the IJV until the facial vein enters IJV, IJV demonstrates no flow above facial vein entry; D. VH criteria 4 - No flow in vertebral veins (VV) despite low wall filter and low velocity scale; E. VH criteria 5 - Negative delta CSA – IJV cross sectional area is larger in the upright position than in the supine position resulting in a negative delta CSA (supine IJV CSA 11.54 – upright IJV CSA 12.90 = −1.36 mm).

Zivadinov et al. BMC Neurology 2013 13:151   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-13-151
Download authors' original image