Table 1

Characteristics of the patients participating through the follow-up analysis
Characteristics MAKS group Control group Total
(n = 30) (n = 22) (n = 52)
Age, mean (SD) 84.1 (5.02) 84.64 (5.45) 84.33 (5.16)
Women, no. (%) 27 (90.0) 16 (72.7) 43 (82.7)
Educational attainment, no. (%)
No school completed 4 (13.3) 2 (9.1) 6 (11.5)
Lower secondary school (Hauptschule; through grade 9) 21 (70.0) 16 (72.7) 37 (71.2)
Secondary modern school (Realschule; through grade 10) 4 (13.3) 1 (4.5) 5 (9.6)
University-preparatory secondary school (Gymnasium; through grade 13) 0 (0) 1 (4.5) 1 (1.9)
Information lacking 1 (3.3) 2 (9.1) 3 (5.8)
Marital status, no. (%)
Married 2 (6.7) 5 (22.7) 7 (13.5)
Widowed 22 (73.3) 16 (72.7) 38 (73.1)
Divorced 0 (0) 1 (4.5) 1 (1,9)
Single 6 (20.0) 0 (0) 6 (11.5)
MMSE mean (SD) 15.57 (4.83) 14.14 (5.45) 14.96 (5.1)
NOSGER subscale mood, mean (SD) 10.43 (3.13) 9.41 (2.99) 10.0 (3.08)
Charlson comorbidity indexa, mean (SD) 0.95 (1.34) 1.0 (1.34) 0.97 (1.33)
Use of anti-dementia medications, no. (%) 3 (10.0) 3 (13.6) 6 (11.5)
Medication scoreb, mean (SD) −1.57 (1.81) −1.82 (1.87) −1.67 (1.82)

Abbreviations: MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; NOSGER, Nurses’ Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients; ADAS-cog, Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale, subscale cognition; E-ADL test, Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living.

a Charlson comorbidity index: Effect of comorbidities (i.e. in addition to dementia) on mortality rate. A condition is assigned a score according to the mortality risk associated with it. One-year mortality increases from 12% (index = 0) to 85% (index ≥ 5) as the score increases.

b Medication score: mean value of the sedating or activating (side-)effect of all medications taken by the patient, calculated using all prescribed medications, including anti-dementia drugs. To calculate these effects, two experts from the Department of Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Erlangen rated all medications in terms of their sedating or stimulating effect or side effects using a five-step scale: –2 (very sedating), –1 (sedating), 0 (neither sedating nor stimulating), +1 (stimulating), +2 (very stimulating).

Luttenberger et al.

Luttenberger et al. BMC Neurology 2012 12:151   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-151

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