Table 7

Multivariate analyses: drivers of cost in the acute phase (index hospitalisation), healthcare costs and societal costs in the 1-year follow-up after the stroke event
Dependent variable Log (costs) Model 1 (acute phase) Model 2 (healthcare costs during follow up) Model 3 (total societal costs)
Coefficient T P>t Coefficient t P>t coefficient T P>t
Demographic
Age 0.0003 0.12 0.904 −0.008 −1.42 0.158 −0.001 −0.45 0.653
Gender (female=1) 0.028 0.51 0.611 −0.394 −2.65 0.008 −0.094 −1.34 0.180
Living with family (vs alone/institution) −0.010 −0.14 0.885 −0.264 −1.41 0.159 0.026 0.29 0.770
North (vs. south and centre) 0.100 1.61 0.108 −0.013 −0.07 0.942 −0.161 −1.98 0.048
Centre (vs south and north) 0.077 1.04 0.300 0.231 1.15 0.253 −0.03 −0.29 0.771
Clinical
Diabetes mellitus 0.038 0.63 0.529 0.341 2.03 0.044 0.06 0.75 0.453
Previous stroke 0.096 1.12 0.264 −0.104 −0.44 0.663 0.128 1.15 0.253
Smoker 0.083 −1.29 0.199 0.146 0.83 0.409 −0.066 −0.79 0.432
Atrial fibrillation 0.024 0.35 0.727 0.088 0.46 0.644 0.109 1.21 0.227
Haemorragic stroke 0.010 0.13 0.896 0.486 2.41 0.016 0.160 1.69 0.092
Organizational
Stroke Unit 0.172 2.31 0.021 0.061 0.29 0.769 0.019 0.20 0.842
Neurology ward 0.307 4.76 0.000 −0.351 −1.99 0.048 0.000 0.00 0.997
Functional outcomes*
NIHSS (at admission) 0.014 2.57 0.011 0.027 1.82 0.069 0.020 2.93 0.004
Barthel Index categories**
Mild dependence (75–95) 0.063 −0.78 0.434 0.202 0.98 0.329 0.220 2.25 0.025
Moderate dependence (46–74) 0.090 1.19 0.236 0.312 1.07 0.284 0.652 4.76 0.000
Severe dependence (0–45) 0.218 2.77 0.006 0.885 2.47 0.014 0.749 4.43 0.000
Modified Rankin Scale ***
MRS 3 (moderate disability) 0.744 3.24 0.001 0.315 2.91 0.004
MRS 3–5 ( severe disability) 1.210 3.76 0.000 0.596 3.93 0.000
Constant 7.988 42.51 0.000 7.372 14.63 0.000 8.924 37.6 0.000
Number of obs 411 411 411
R-squared 0.1617 0.3726 0.5307
Adj R-squared 0.1227 0.3437 0.5091
F F( 16, 394) = 5.37 4.75 F(18,392)=24.63
Prob > F <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001

* Scales at the beginning of the reference period.

**BI >95 (Independence) is a reference category.

*** MRS (0–2 no or slight disability) reference category.

Fattore et al.

Fattore et al. BMC Neurology 2012 12:137   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-137

Open Data