Table 1

Patients with Graves' disease and encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease.

Reference

Age

Gender

Clinical manifestations

EAATD relapses

(in the short term)

Thyroid hormones

Responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy


Patient 1 [3]

21

seizures, involuntary movements, altered consciousness

no

- hyperthyroidism

- clinical improvement

- decrease of the auto-Abs


Patient 2 [13]

23

seizures, cognitive impairment, altered consciousness

1 relapse

- hyperthyroidism

- euthyroidism at EAATD relapse

- clinical improvement

- decrease of the auto-Abs


Patient 3 [14]

51

involuntary movements, cognitive impairment, decreased verbal fluency, altered consciousness

1 relapse

- hyperthyroidism

- euthyroidism at EAATD relapse

- clinical improvement

- decrease of the auto-Abs


Patient 4 [15]

45

involuntary movements, mono-lateral weakness, dysarthria, altered consciousness, hallucinations, sphincters incontinence

no

- hyperthyroidism

- clinical improvement

- decrease of the auto-Abs

- plasmapheresis was required


Patient 5 [16]

29

headache, altered hearing, nausea and vomit, blunted papilla, nystagmus

no

- hyperthyroidism

- clinical improvement

- decrease of the auto-Abs


Patient 6 [17]

57

involuntary movements, altered consciousness

no

not reported

- clinical improvement


Patient 7 [17]

25

seizures, headache, involuntary movements, ataxia, aphasia, altered consciousness

persisting symptoms

not reported

- partial improvement


Patient 8 [18]

12

optic neuritis, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesis

no

- hyperthyroidism

- clinical worsening


Patient 9 [19]

68

seizures, altered consciousness, anxiety, hallucinations

no

- euthyroidism

- clinical improvement


Patient 10 [20]

61

involuntary movements, ataxia, cognitive impairment, altered consciousness, depression

no

- post-RAI hypothyroidism

- clinical improvement


Patient 11 [21]

47

seizures, headache, hemiplegia, cognitive impairment, altered consciousness, hallucinations

no

- hyperthyroidism

- clinical improvement

- decrease of the auto-Abs


Patient 12 [22]

40

seizures, hemiplegia, dysathria, cognitive impairment, altered consciousness

no

- hyperthyroidism

- no corticosteroid treatment

- spontaneous improvement


Patient 13 [23]

79

seizures, involuntary movements, cognitive impairment, altered consciousness

not reported

- hyperthyroidism

- clinical improvement


Patient 14 [24]

55

involuntary movements, ataxia, altered consciousness, anxiety, hallucinations

1 relapse

- hyperthyroidism

- very mild hypothyroidism at EAATD relapse

- clinical improvement

- decrease of the auto-Abs


The main anthropometrics data, biological findings, and clinical features of the fourteen patients with a defined diagnosis of Graves' disease and encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (EAATD) reported in the literature so far (Abs: antibodies; RAI: radioactive iodine).

Tamagno et al. BMC Neurology 2010 10:27   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-10-27

Open Data