Table 3

ORs for Parkinson's disease in relation to alcohol drinking amount per day during "peak" period according to types of alcohol

Alcohol drinking amount per day during "peak" period (ethanol, g) a

n (%)

Crude OR

(95% CI)

Adjusted ORb

(95% CI)

Adjusted ORc

(95% CI)


Cases

(N = 214)

Controls

(N = 327)


Beer

Non-drinker

127 (59.4)

195 (59.6)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-65.9

75 (35.1)

121 (37.0)

0.95 (0.66-1.37)

1.14 (0.72-1.79)

0.99 (0.61-1.59)

≥ 66.0

12 (5.6)

11 (3.4)

1.68 (0.71-3.97)

2.23 (0.84-5.97)

2.13 (0.80-5.82)

P for trend

0.62

0.19

0.39

Japanese sake (rice wine)

Non-drinker

146 (68.2)

261 (79.8)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-65.9

58 (27.1)

59 (18.0)

1.76 (1.16-2.66)

2.42 (1.44-4.11)

2.27 (1.34-3.89)

≥ 66.0

10 (4.7)

7 (2.1)

2.55 (0.96-7.17)

3.10 (1.04-9.71)

3.39 (1.10-11.0)

P for trend

0.002

0.001

0.001

Shochu (a distilled alcoholic beverage made in Japan)

Non-drinker

180 (84.1)

273 (83.5)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-65.9

18 (8.4)

32 (9.8)

0.85 (0.46-1.55)

1.07 (0.54-2.08)

1.01 (0.50-1.98)

≥ 66.0

16 (7.5)

22 (6.7)

1.10 (0.56-2.15)

1.50 (0.69-3.21)

1.29 (0.59-2.78)

P for trend

0.98

0.34

0.58

Wine

Non-drinker

187 (87.4)

294 (89.9)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-65.9

24 (11.2)

32 (9.8)

1.18 (0.67-2.06)

1.21 (0.66-2.21)

1.06 (0.57-1.95)

≥ 66.0

3 (1.4)

1 (0.3)

4.72 (0.60-95.7)

6.88 (0.75-153)

6.11 (0.67-134)

P for trend

0.24

0.18

0.36

Whisky

Non-drinker

177 (82.7)

283 (86.5)

1.00

1.00

1.00

0.1-65.9

30 (14.0)

38 (11.6)

1.26 (0.75-2.11)

1.62 (0.89-2.94)

1.60 (0.88-2.93)

≥ 66.0

7 (3.3)

6 (1.8)

1.87 (0.61-5.88)

2.72 (0.82-9.34)

2.25 (0.67-7.83)

P for trend

0.17

0.03

0.06


OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

a Defined as period during which the subject's alcohol consumption was the highest.

b Adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, and presence of medication history for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes.

c Adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, presence of medication history for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, dietary intake of caffeine, cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin B6, iron, and dietary glycemic index.

Fukushima et al. BMC Neurology 2010 10:111   doi:10.1186/1471-2377-10-111

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