Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its association with metabolic diseases: a cross-sectional survey in Zhejiang province, Eastern China

Bo Lin12, Lina Shao12, Qun Luo3, Lingxia Ou-yang4, Fangfang Zhou3, Biao Du5, Qiang He12, Jianyong Wu12, Nan Xu12 and Jianghua Chen12*

Author Affiliations

1 Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou, P.R.China

2 Key Laboratory of Nephropathy, Zhejiang Province; Kidney Disease Immunology Laboratory, The Third Grade Laboratory, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of PR China, 310003 Hangzhou, P.R.China

3 Division of Nephrology, Ningbo Second Hospital, Ningbo, PR China

4 Division of Nephrology, Zhoushan Putuo Hospital, Zhoushan, PR China

5 Division of Nephrology, Quzhou Kecheng Hospital, Quzhou, PR China

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BMC Nephrology 2014, 15:36  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-36

Published: 21 February 2014



The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic diseases has increased at different rates in different regions in China. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of CKD and to analyze associated risk factors of CKD in Zhejiang province, Eastern China.


A cross-sectional survey of 11,013 adults was conducted from September 2009 to June 2012 in Zhejiang Province, located in Eastern China. CKD was defined as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or the presence of albuminuria. Medical history, physical examination and laboratory data were used to diagnose metabolic diseases. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence was calculated using the data on the population distribution in China in 2010. We examined risk factors associated with decreased renal function and albuminuria using multivariate logistic regression.


A total of 10,384 adults (94.3%) completed the screening. The standardized prevalence of reduced renal function (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was 1.83% (95% CI 1.52–2.13) and that of albuminuria was 8.65% (95% CI 7.98–9.31). The overall prevalence of CKD was 9.88% (95% CI 9.18–10.59). The prevalence of reduced renal function was greater in the eastern rural areas in Zhejiang province. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and hyperuricemia were independent risk factors of CKD. Patients with metabolic diseases had a significantly (P < 0.001) higher prevalence of CKD than those without such diseases.


CKD has become a severe public health problem in Zhejiang Province, and metabolic diseases may increase the risk of CKD in Zhejiang population.

Cross-sectional survey; Chronic kidney disease; Metabolic diseases; Prevalence; Risk factors; Eastern China