Table 3

Hazard ratios for CKD progression according to baseline characteristics
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Serum bicarbonate level (1 mEq/l increase) 0.820 (0.735, 0.915) 0.816 (0.720, 0.924) 0.811 (0.700, 0.940) 0.791 (0.684, 0.914)
Low-bicarbonate group (ref. control group) 2.814 (1.539, 5.145) 3.310 (1.570, 6.978) 2.514 (1.068, 5.918) 3.511 (1.342, 9.186)

Values are given as HRs (95% confidence interval). Adjusted variables in four Cox proportional hazard models are as follows: Model 1, variables in univariate Cox proportional hazard model; Model 2, adjusted for variables in model 1 and variables associated with patient demographics, namely, age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and BMI; Model 3, adjusted for variables in model 2 and variables associated with laboratory variables, namely, eGFR, serum albumin, sodium, and potassium levels, and 24-hour urine protein excretion level; Model 4, adjusted for variables in model 3 and variables associated with the use of medications, namely, RAAS inhibitors, loop diuretics, and sodium bicarbonate.

Abbreviations: ref Reference, BMI Body mass index, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, RAAS Renin angiotensin aldosterone system.

Kanda et al.

Kanda et al. BMC Nephrology 2013 14:4   doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-4

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