Associations of epicardial fat with coronary calcification, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibroblast growth factor-23 in stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease
1 Department of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
2 Queen’s University Vascular Calcification Investigators, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
3 Department of Radiology, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
4 Clinical Research Center, Kingston General Hospital, and Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
5 Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
6 Room 2043 Etherington Hall, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada
BMC Nephrology 2013, 14:26 doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-26Published: 26 January 2013
Epicardial fat, quantified in a single multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) slice, is a reliable estimate of total epicardial fat volume (EFV). We sought to determine risk factors for EFV detected in a single-slice MSCT measurement (ssEFV) in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Our primary objective was to determine the association between ssEFV and coronary artery calcification (CAC).
94 pre-dialysis stage 3–5 CKD patients underwent MSCT to measure ssEFV and CAC. ssEFV was quantified at the level of the left main coronary artery. Measures of inflammation, traditional and kidney-related cardiovascular disease risk factors were collected.
Mean age: 63.7 ± 14 years, 56% male, 39% had diabetes, and mean eGFR: 25.1 ± 11.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean ssEFV was 5.03 ± 2.4 cm3. By univariate analysis, body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.53; P = <0.0001), abdominal obesity (r = 0.51; P < 0.0001), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = − 0.39; P = <0.0001), insulin resistance (log homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (log HOMA-IR)) (r = 0.38, P = 0.001), log interleukin-6 (IL-6) (r = 0.34; P = 0.001), and log urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) (r = 0.30, P = 0.004) demonstrated the strongest associations with ssEFV. Log coronary artery calcification (log CAC score) (r = 0.28, P = 0.006), and log fibroblast growth factor-23 (log FGF-23) (r = 0.23, P = 0.03) were also correlated with ssEFV. By linear regression, log CAC score (beta =0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.01-0.80; P = 0.045), increasing levels of IL-6 (beta = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.38 – 1.61; P = 0.002), abdominal obesity (beta = 1.86; 95% CI, 0.94 - 2.8; P < 0.0001), lower HDL cholesterol (beta = −2.30; 95% CI, – 3.68 to −0.83; P = 0.002) and albuminuria (log UACR, beta = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.4; P = 0.01) were risk factors for increased ssEFV.
In stage 3–5 CKD, coronary calcification and IL-6 and were predictors of ssEFV. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which epicardial fat may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary disease, particularly in the CKD population.