Table 1

Observational Studies in Children with Nephrotic Syndrome
Author Year N Ethnicity Mean Age at Onset ± SD, yrs (Range) Male (%) Mean Follow-Up Time ± SD, yrs (Range) Steroid Resistant (%)
Retrospective Studies
Ingulli [5] 1991 177 Black & Hispanic 7.3 ± 4.6 No data 8.25 ± 4.3 15.3%
(1.0-16.75) (1-15)
65 Caucasian 7.8 ± 4.8 8.8 ± 4.1 6.2%
(2-14.8) (2-14.8)
Bircan [8] 2002 138 Turkish 4.9 ± 3.56 61.2% 3.4 ± 2.31 13.2%
(1-15) (1-6)
Ozkaya [9] 2004 392 Turkish 4.6 ± 3.4 59.2% 2 23%b
(0.9-16)a
Kim [10] 2005 103 Caucasian 4.3 ± 3.5 51% No data 3.6%
96 African-American 8.2 ± 5.2 No data 11%
Bhimma [3] 2006 816 Black & Indian 4.8 60.4% 2.5 27.3%
(1.2-16) (0.1-16.5)
Chang [11] 2009 99 Chinese 8.35 ± 4.61 73.7% 5.06 ± 4.35 N/Ae
(2-18)
Mubarak [6] 2009 538 Pakistani 9.79 ± 4.59 64.4% No data 31.1%
(0.8-18)a
Otukesh [12] 2009 73 Iranian 5.9 52.0% 6.0 ± 4.2 100%
(0.5-16)
Copelovitch [4] 2010 112 Cambodian 8.95 63.4% 15.1 6.25%
(0.6-15.75) (3.7-2.73)
Banaszak [13] 2012 76 Caucasian (Poland)c 2.7 (median) 54.5% No data 15.8%
102 Caucasian (Poland)d 3.3 (median) 68% No data 31.3%
Prospective Studies
Kumar [14] 2003 290 Northern and Eastern Indian 7.9 ± 5.1 73.4% No data 38%b
Wong [15](Registry) 2007 49 New Zealand European, Maori, Pacific Islander, Asian, Other 6.1 ± 3.8 71.4% 1 19.6%
Bakkali [16](Registry) 2011 231 No data (Netherlands) 5.08 67.1% 4 N/Ae

a indicates age of study group, where age at onset not specified.

b estimated based on participants diagnosed with FSGS.

c indicates patients treated with NS between 1986-1995.

d indicates patients treated with NS between 1996-2005.

e no steroid resistance reported.

Hussain et al.

Hussain et al. BMC Nephrology 2013 14:25   doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-25

Open Data