Table 2

Summary results of logistic regression analysis for exposures
Exposure 95% CI
OR Lower Upper P value n
Education
  No education Reference 174
  School grades 1–9 0.900 0.612 1.323 0.594 4374
  Higher 1.201 0.588 2.452 0.614 74
Smoking
  Never Reference 3480
  Current/former 1.072 0.813 1.415 0.619 1126
Illicit alcohol consumption
  Never Reference 3701
  Occasional/frequent/past 1.184 0.905 1.548 0.216 874
Occupation
  Other Reference 2816
  Farmer 1.195 1.007 1.418 0.041 1780
Agriculture type
  Non-paddy Reference 315
  Paddy 0.732 0.542 0.988 0.042 2620
Years working in agriculture
  <10 Reference 660
  10–19 0.834 0.603 1.152 0.271 777
  20–49 1.092 0.777 1.535 0.611 1182
  ≥50 1.322 0.462 3.785 0.602 22
Source of drinking water
  Not well Reference 798
  Well 0.971 0.785 1.202 0.793 3819
Water storage container
  Others Reference 1741
  Aluminium 1.03 0.87 1.22 0.715 2879
Protection from agrochemicals
  Yes Reference 191
  No 1.011 0.661 1.546 0.959 4271

Separate logistic regressions have been run per exposure variable; OR < 1 means protective, and OR > 1 means that the exposure increases the odds of CKDu. The total number (n) of observations varies per exposure, owing to missing data. All results are adjusted for sex and age. For all analyses, male sex was found to be protective and the risk increased with age.

CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio.

Being male reduced the risk of CKDu (OR = 0.745, 95% CI = 0.562 to 0.988; P < 0.05), and being >39 years increased the risk of CKDu (OR = 1.926, 95% CI = 1.561 to 2.376, P < 0.001).

Jayatilake et al.

Jayatilake et al. BMC Nephrology 2013 14:180   doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-180

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