Table 4

Relative hazards (95% CI) forcardiovascularmortality by solute
Solute Overall (continuous, per 1 SD) Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Below median Above median
P-cresol sulfate
Range of values 0-11.1 mg/dl (SD = 1.76 mg/dl) 0-3.1 mg/dl 3.1-11.1 mg/dl
Unadjusted 1.09 (0.93-1.28) Reference 1.35 (0.98-1.85)
Adjusted* 1.06 (0.89-1.27) Reference 1.24 (0.87-1.77)
+ obesity, creatinine 1.07 (0.88-1.29) Reference 1.30 (0.89-1.89)
Indoxyl sulfate
Range of values 0-6.8 mg/dl (SD = 1.11 mg/dl) 0-1.6 mg/dl 1.6-6.8 mg/dl
Unadjusted 0.87 (0.74-1.03) Reference 0.93 (0.67-1.27)
Adjusted* 0.88 (0.74-1.06) Reference 0.93 (0.66-1.31)
+ obesity, creatinine 0.96 (0.79-1.18) Reference 1.11 (0.76-1.64)
MMA
Range of values 24.2-190.6 ug/L (SD = 16.48 ug/L) 24.2-49.6 ug/L 49.7-190.6 ug/L
Unadjusted 1.06 (0.90-1.24) Reference 0.99 (0.72-1.36)
Adjusted* 0.97 (0.82-1.15) Reference 0.91 (0.64-1.29)
+ obesity, creatinine 1.06 (0.89-1.26) Reference 1.01 (0.69-1.48)
DMA
Range of values 7.6-33.9 uM (SD = 3.69 uM) 7.6-18.3 uM 18.3-33.9 uM
Unadjusted 0.97 (0.83-1.14) Reference 0.81 (0.58-1.13)
Adjusted* 1.00 (0.85-1.18) Reference 0.84 (0.59-1.18)
+ obesity, creatinine 1.02 (0.86-1.22) Reference 0.89 (0.61-1.29)
Total Score (vs. 0)** Continuous 1 2 3 4
Unadjusted 1.00 (0.88-1.14) 1.22 (0.70-2.13) 1.00 (0.61-1.65) 0.78 (0.45-1.35) 1.43 (0.79-2.59)
Adjusted* 0.97 (0.84-1.13) 1.03 (0.57-1.84) 0.89 (0.52-1.51) 0.59 (0.33-1.07) 1.37 (0.73-2.58)
+ obesity, creatinine 1.05 (0.89-1.25) 1.11 (0.60-2.06) 0.97 (0.55-1.71) 0.72 (0.38-1.37) 1.91 (0.94-3.88)

All models stratified by clinic cluster. *Adjustment: basic model, age at enrollment, sex, race, comorbidity score (ICED), and baseline albumin: + obesity and creatinine value. **Total number of solutes with levels above the population median.

Melamed et al.

Melamed et al. BMC Nephrology 2013 14:134   doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-134

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