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Open Access Research article

Impact of heavy proteinuria on clinical outcomes in patients on incident peritoneal dialysis

Seok Hui Kang, Kyu Hyang Cho, Jong Won Park, Kyung Woo Yoon and Jun Young Do*

Author Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Yeungnam University Hospital, 317-1 Daemyung-Dong, Nam-Ku 705-717, Daegu, Korea

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BMC Nephrology 2012, 13:171  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-171

Published: 17 December 2012

Abstract

Background

There are few reports on the nutritional status changes and residual renal function (RRF) according to proteinuria levels in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

Methods

A total of 388 patients on PD were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups with respect to initial proteinuria: the A (n = 119; <500 mg/day), B (n = 218; 500–3,500 mg/day), and C groups (n = 51; >3,500 mg/day).

Results

The patients with higher proteinuria levels had a higher incidence of male sex, diabetes mellitus, and icodextrin use than those with lower proteinuria levels. Although initial peritoneal albumin loss in C group was lower than that detected in the other groups, no significant difference was observed in peritoneal albumin loss among the 3 groups at the end of follow-up period. At the time of PD initiation, the Geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was lower in the C group than in the other 2 groups. However, at the end of the follow-up period, there was no significant difference in GNRI between the 3 groups. The GNRI increased, and the proteinuria level or RRF decreased more in the C group than in the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in lean mass index or fat mass index change from the time of PD initiation to the end of the follow-up period. However, fat mass index and nPNA showed greater increases in the C group. The multivariate analysis revealed that proteinuria was negatively correlated with GNRI at the time of PD initiation and at the end of the follow-up period. The initial RRF and proteinuria were negatively correlated with the RRF decline during the follow-up.

Conclusion

The attenuation of the nephrotic proteinuria, along with the RRF decline, was associated with the improvement of the malnutrition.

Keywords:
Peritoneal dialysis; Proteinuria; Residual renal function; Nutrition