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Open Access Research article

Cultural adaptation and validation of the “Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) version 1.3” questionnaire in Egypt

Samar Abd ElHafeez1*, Sunny A Sallam1, Zahira M Gad1, Carmine Zoccali2, Claudia Torino2, Giovanni Tripepi2, Hala S ElWakil3 and Noha M Awad1

Author Affiliations

1 Epidemiology Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2 CNR-IBM, Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Renal diseases and Hypertension of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy

3 Nephrology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

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BMC Nephrology 2012, 13:170  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-170

Published: 13 December 2012

Abstract

Background

Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM) version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients.

Methods

KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4) patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed.

Results

All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α <0.7: quality of social interaction (0.23), work status (0.28), and cognitive function (0.60). All disease specific scales were reproducible. Results from discriminant validity showed that the study questionnaire could discriminate between patients’ subgroups. As for concept validity, the correlation between all domains of the questionnaire with overall health ratewas significant for all domains except for the work status, sexual function, emotional wellbeing, and role emotional. Furthermore, the correlation between the disease specific domains and the two composite summaries of SF-36 (physical and mental composite summaries) was significant for all domains except for sexual function with mental composite summary. Construct validity was indicated by the observation that the majority of the domains of the kidney disease targeted scale of KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 were significantly inter-correlated. Finally, principal component analysis of the kidney disease targeted scale indicated that this part of the questionnaire could be summarized into 10 factors that together explained 70.9% of the variance.

Conclusion

The results suggest that this Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for use in Egyptian patients with CKD.

Keywords:
Chronic kidney disease; Egypt; Health-related quality of life; KDQOL-SFTM 1.3; Questionnaire validation