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Open Access Research article

Prevalence of diminished kidney function in a representative sample of middle and older age adults in the Irish population

Gemma M Browne12*, Joseph A Eustace34, Anthony P Fitzgerald1, Jennifer E Lutomski1 and Ivan J Perry1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College Cork, Western Gateway Building, Cork, Ireland

2 Department of Medicine, Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland

3 Clinical Research Facility, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

4 Department of Nephrology, Cardiac Renal Centre, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland

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BMC Nephrology 2012, 13:144  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-144

Published: 2 November 2012

Abstract

Background

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using available estimating equations with the Republic of Ireland is unknown.

Methods

A randomly selected population based cross-sectional study of 1,098 adults aged 45 years and older was conducted using data from the 2007 Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN). Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) was calculated from a single IDMS aligned serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI and the MDRD equations, and albumin to creatinine ratio was based on a single random urine sample.

Results

The sample clinical characteristics and demography was similar to middle and older age adults in the general Irish population, though with an underrepresentation of subjects >75 years and of males. All results are based on subjects with available blood and urine samples. Applying weighting to obtain survey based population estimates, using Irish population census data, the estimated weighted prevalence of CKD-EPI eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2 was 11.6%, (95% confidence interval; 9.0, 14.2%), 12.0% ( 9.0, 14.2%) of men and 11.2% (7.3, 15.2%) of women. Unweighted prevalence estimates were similar at 11.8% (9.9, 13.8%). Albuminuria increased with lower CKD-EPI eGFR category. 10.1% of all subjects had albuminuria and an eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 giving an overall weighted estimated prevalence of National Kidney Foundation (NKF) defined CKD 21.3% (18.0, 24.6%), with the unadjusted estimate of 21.9% (19.5, 24.4%). MDRD related estimates for eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and NFK defined CKD were higher than CKD-EPI and differences were greater in younger and female subjects.

Conclusions

CKD is highly prevalent in middle and older aged adults within the Republic of Ireland. In this population, there is poor agreement between CKD-EPI and MDRD equations especially at higher GFRs. CKD is associated with lower educational status and poor self rated health.

Keywords:
Chronic kidney disease; Glomerular filtration rate; Albuminuria; Population survey