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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The relationships between exogenous and endogenous antioxidants with the lipid profile and oxidative damage in hemodialysis patients

Miguel Roehrs1, Juliana Valentini1, Clóvis Paniz1, Angela Moro12, Mariele Charão12, Rachel Bulcão12, Fernando Freitas12, Natália Brucker12, Marta Duarte1, Mirna Leal3, Geni Burg1, Tilman Grune4 and Solange Cristina Garcia1*

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Clinical and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

2 Post-graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

3 Departament of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

4 Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany

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BMC Nephrology 2011, 12:59  doi:10.1186/1471-2369-12-59

Published: 26 October 2011



We sought to investigate the relationships among the plasma levels of carotenoids, tocopherols, endogenous antioxidants, oxidative damage and lipid profiles and their possible effects on the cardiovascular risk associated with hemodialysis (HD) patients.


The study groups were divided into HD and healthy subjects. Plasma carotenoid, tocopherol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured by HPLC. Blood antioxidant enzymes, kidney function biomarkers and the lipid profiles were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods.


Plasma lycopene levels and blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly decreased in HD patients compared with healthy subjects. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), creatinine, urea, MDA, GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in HD (p < 0.05). Lycopene levels were correlated with MDA (r = -0.50; p < 0.01), LDL-c (r = -0.38; p = 0.01) levels, the LDL-c/HDL-c index (r = -0.33; p = 0.03) and GPx activity (r = 0.30; p = 0.03). Regression models showed that lycopene levels were correlated with LDL-c (β estimated = -31.59; p = 0.04), while gender was correlated with the TC/HDL-c index and triglycerides. Age did not present a correlation with the parameters evaluated. GPx activity was negatively correlated with MDA levels and with the LDL-c/HDL-c and CT/HDL-c indexes.


Lycopene may represent an additional factor that contributes to reduced lipid peroxidation and atherogenesis in hemodialysis patients.