Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

Thomas Magulski1, Dajana Paulmann1, Birte Bischoff1, Britta Becker1, Eike Steinmann2, Jörg Steinmann3, Peter Goroncy-Bermes4 and Jochen Steinmann1*

Author Affiliations

1 MikroLab GmbH, Norderoog 2, D-28259 Bremen, Germany

2 TWINCORE – Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, Department of Experimental Virology, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 7, D-30625 Hannover, Germany

3 Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Virchowstrasse 179, D-45147 Essen, Germany

4 Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Robert-Koch Str. 2, D-22851 Norderstedt, Germany

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2009, 9:107  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-9-107

Published: 7 July 2009



Human norovirus (NoV) causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces.


The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA) for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells.


PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v)] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v)] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA) on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes).


Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces.