Table 2

Corynebacterium endocarditis: risk factors and outcomes by Corynebacterium species.

Species & references

Number of cases†

(% total)

Mean age

(years)

Male n

(%)

Left sided Endocarditis

n (%)

Previous prosthetic valve

n (%)

Previous valvular disease§

n (%)

Nosocomial risk factors||

n (%)

Required valve replacement

n (%)

Survived

n(%)


Non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae 5, 20, 22, 24–26, 27, 32, 46, 48–52, 54, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 78, 94

60 (46.5%)

56 ± 13.8

p = 0.012

45 (75%)

58 (95.1%)

8 (13.3%)

17 (28.3%)

1 (1.7%)

p = 0.017

17 (28.3%)

39 (65%)

p = 0.060

C. pseudo-diphtheriticum 18, 20, 36–38, 40, 42–45, 81, 83

18 (14.0%)

45 ± 21.32

17 (93.8%)

p = 0.023

18 (100%)

8 (44.4%)

p = 0.004

6 (33.3%)

0 (0%)

6 (37.5%)

6 (33.3%)

p = 0.032

Toxigenic C. diphtheriae 23, 27, 29, 49, 64, 66

14 (10.9%)

17.5 ± 16.5

p < 0.001

8 (57.1%)

12 (85.7%)

1 (7.1%)

2 (14.3%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

*p = 0.014

2 (14.3%)

p = 0.001

C. striatum 6, 7, 9–15, 53, 56, 62

14 (10.9%)

61.3 ± 13.9

p = 0.018

7 (50%)

12 (85.7%)

3 (21.4%)

4 (28.6%)

5 (35.7%)

p < 0.001

4 (28.6%)

11 (78.6%)

p = 0.074

C. jeikeium 6, 16, 19, 25, 34, 35, 69, 79, 93

13 (10.1%)

57.2 ± 13.6

p = 0.024

10 (76.9%)

12 (92.3%)

5 (38.5%)

p = 0.064

6 (42.6%)

3 (23.1%)

p = 0.028

7 (53.8%)

p = 0.026

10 (76.9%)

C. xerosis 59, 75, 82, 95

4 (3.1%)

51.2 ± 12.3

3 (75%)

4 (100%)

0 (0%)

2 (50%)

0 (0%)

2 (50%)

2 (50%)

C. hemolyticum 77, 80

2 (1.6%)

68.5 ± 26.1

2 (100%)

2 (100%)

0 (0%)

1 (50%)

1 (50%)

p = 0.024

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

C. minutissimum 86, 91

2 (1.6%)

35.5 ± 6.3

1 (50%)

2 (100%)

0 (0%)

1 (50%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

2 (100%)

C amycolatum 6, 60

2 (1.6%)

81 ± 9.8

0 (0%)

p = 0.024

2 (100%)

0 (0%)

1 (50%)

0 (0%)

0 (0%)

1 (50%)


Total

129 (100%)

35.7 ± 22.9

93 (72.1%)

123 (94.6%)

25 (19.3%)

40 (31.0%)

10 (7.7%)

36 (27.9%)

73 (56.6%)


*Data derived from References 2–97 (specific citations listed in by-species citations, column 1). All p values are compared to the mean.

† Percentages of the total number of cases (within column 2). Note: All other percentages represent values for each Corynebacterium species (percentage within each row).

‡ Left sided endocarditis: Aortic or mitral valve endocarditis.

§Previous valvular disease other than valve replacement.

|| Nosocomial risk factors: presence of an intravascular access device, dialysis fistula, pacemaker, or presence of a prosthetic device other than a valve

Belmares et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:4   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-7-4

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