Table 1

Blood concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde (mg/L) before and after 20 hygienic hand disinfections

Hand rub

Substance

Before first application

Time after last application


2.5 min

5 min

10 min

20 min

30 min

60 min

90 min


A

Ethanol

0.11 (0.09–0.12)

1.40 (01.22–1.58)

3.30 (3.22–3.38)

5.80 (5.52–6.08)

8.55 (8.06–9.04)

20.95 (20.46–21.34)

16.60 (16.21–16.99)

10.10 (9.83–10.37)

Acetaldehyde

0.10 (0.01–0.10)

0.20 (0.19–0.21)

0.25 (0.24–0.26)

0.20 (0.18–0.22)

0.30 (0.29–0.31)

0.50 (0.47–0.54)

0.40 (0.39–0.41)

0.20 (0.19–0.21)

B

Ethanol

0.07 (0.06–0.08)

1.30 (1.01–1.59)

2.60 (2.34–2.86)

4.10 (3.79–4.40)

5.65 (5.42–5.88)

11.45 (11.17–11.73)

5.10 (4.83–5.37)

4.30 (4.21–4.32)

Acetaldehyde

0.10 (0.10–0.10)

0.50 (0.47–0.51)

0.35 (0.34–0.36)

0.30 (0.28–0.32)

0.40 (0.38–0.42)

0.40 (0.39–0.41)

0.40 (0.39–0.41)

0.30 (0.29–0.31)

C

Ethanol

0.07 (0.05–0.08)

1.00 (0.76–1.24)

0.60 (0.37–0.82)

1.10 (0.89–1.31)

4.05 (3.85–4.25)

6.90 (6.76–7.04)

3.00 (2.87–3.13)

1.50 (1.42–1.58)

Acetaldehyde

0.10 (0.10–0.10)

0.40 (0.39–0.41)

0.30 (0.29–0.31)

0.50 (0.49–0.51)

0.40 (0.38–0.42)

0.60 (0.59–0.61)

0.45 (0.44–0.46)

0.30 (0.28–0.32)


Hand rub A (95% ethanol), hand rub B (85% ethanol), hand rub C (55% ethanol); Median with 95% CI (brackets) from 12 volunteers; total exposure of 60 mL hand rub in an open room of 37 m3 with a total contact time of 10 minutes.

Kramer et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2007 7:117   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-7-117

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