Table 1

Association of Candida colonization with host characteristics among 101 women with diabetes recruited from urban and suburban clinics (2000)

Not Colonized

Colonized

Characteristic

Number

Number

OR

95% CI

p-value


Diabetes Type

Type 1

23

16

2.62

(0.99, 6.98)

0.03

Type 2

49

13

Hemoglobin A1c+

Normal (4–6.4%)

17

3

Abnormal (> 6.4%)

55

26

2.68

(0.68, 15.39)

0.13

Duration (miss = 5)

< 5 years

24

9

6–14 years

26

4

0.41

(0.08,1.74)

0.17

> 14 years

19

14

1.96

(0.63, 6.32)

0.20

Age

18–44

24

7

45–59

21

15

2.45

(0.75, 8.45)

0.10

60+

27

7

0.89

(0.23, 3.46)

0.85

Race (miss = 1)

White

38

13

Black

32

15

1.37

(0.52, 3.64)

0.48

Asian

1

1

2.92

(0.03, 234.35)

0.44

Marital Status (miss = 6)

Never married

11

6

Married, living with spouse

30

12

0.73

(0.19,3.00)

0.61

Married, not living with

5

2

0.73

(0.05, 6.55)

0.75

spouse; and/or separated

Widowed or divorced

22

7

0.58

(0.13,2.69)

0.42

Education (miss = 4)

High school or less

25

6

Vocational/Associate/ Some college

26

15

2.40

(0.72, 8.72)

0.11

Bachelor's degree and higher

19

6

1.32

(0.30, 5.78)

0.67

Employed (miss = 8)

Not employed

30

15

Part-time

14

3

0.43

(0.07., 1.91)

0.22

Full-time

22

9

0.82

(0.26, 2.44)

0.69

Insurance (miss = 10)

No

0

3

Yes

64

24

--

(0.0, 0.98)

0.02*

Antibiotics (oral only)

None

65

20

Taken in last two weeks

7

9

4.18

(1.19, 14.84)

0.01*

Lifetime history of Chlamydia (miss = 5)

No

65

23

Yes

3

5

4.71

(0.83,32.12)

0.04*

Douche (miss = 9)

No

48

15

Yes

17

12

2.26

(0.79, 6.37)

0.09

Oral sex in past 2 weeks (miss = 13)

None

58

17

Perform only

1

1

3.41

(0.04,272.31)

0.42*

Receive only

3

1

1.14

(0.02, 15.23)

1.00*

Perform and Receive

2

5

8.53

(1.22,93.93)

0.02*

Vaginal-penile sex in past 2 weeks (miss = 8)

None

45

22

Yes

15

11

1.50

(0.53,4.17)

0.39


+Note: HbA1c calculated from a linear regression formula using total glycated hemoglobin values. Cut points based on local laboratory values. *2-tailed Fisher's Exact Test

de Leon et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2002 2:1   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-2-1

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