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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

In vitro susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine samples obtained in mainland China to fosfomycin trometamol and other antibiotics: a 9-year surveillance study (2004–2012)

Bei Lai14, Bo Zheng2, Yun Li2, Sainan Zhu3 and Zhaohui Tong1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, PR of China

2 Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, PR of China

3 Department of Biostatistics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, PR of China

4 Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Beijing Hosptial, Beijing 100730, PR of China

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:66  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-66

Published: 6 February 2014

Abstract

Background

As a result of extensive use of fluroquinlones and cephalosporins, urinary tract pathogens producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) pose a considerable clinical challenge in the treatment of UTIs. In the present study we retrospectively assessed the susceptibility of E. coli strains to fosfomycin trometamol and other antibiotics commonly used for the treatment of such infections.

Methods

A total of 908 nonreplicate clinical E. coli urinary isolates were collected from 20 Chinese hospitals over four consecutive 1-year periods between October 2004 and June 2012. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents fosfomycin trometamol, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, imipenem, amikacin, levofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin was determined using the agar dilution method. A reference strain E. coli (ATCC 25922) was used as a positive control. Results were analyzed using Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact tests.

Results

Fosfomycin trometamol, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, and imipenem were consistently the most active agents against most of the isolates. There was a decline in susceptibility to cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefepime between 2004 and 2010. We showed that 528 of the 908 E. coli isolates (58.1%) produced ESBLs. The ESBL-positive rates increased from 41.7% in 2004−2005 to 60.9% in 2011−2012. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates showed significantly higher resistance rates to levofloxacin than the ESBL-negative isolates. Fosfomycin trometamol, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, and imipenem had good activity against both levofloxacin-susceptible and levofloxacin- nonsusceptible isolates (sensitivity rate > 90%). However susceptibility of levofloxacin-resistant isolates to cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, amikacin, and nitrofurantoin was significantly lower than that of levofloxacin-susceptible isolates.

Conclusions

Owing to the increase in the bacterial resistance across the world, the European Urology Association has recommended fosfomycin trometamol as the drug of choice in its Guidelines on Urological Infections released in 2013. Our results confirm this recommendation for use in China and continued monitoring of the susceptibility of E. coli to fosfomycin trometamol is need with the widely use of the drug in China.