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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Molecular identification of adenoviruses associated with respiratory infection in Egypt from 2003 to 2010

Pola N Demian1, Katherine C Horton1, Adriana Kajon2, Rania Siam3, Amel Mohamed Nageib Hasanin4, Amany Elgohary Sheta4, Claire Cornelius16 and Anne M Gaynor15*

Author Affiliations

1 U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt

2 Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM, USA

3 Biology Department and the YJ-Science and Technology Research Center, American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

4 Ministry of Health and Population, Cairo, Egypt

5 Present Address: School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, USA

6 Present Address: 218th Medical Detachment, (Veterinary Service Support), 47th Combat Support Hospital, 62nd Medical Brigade, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, WA, USA

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:50  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-50

Published: 30 January 2014



Human adenoviruses of species B, C, and E (HAdV-B, –C, -E) are frequent causative agents of acute respiratory infections worldwide. As part of a surveillance program aimed at identifying the etiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt, we characterized 105 adenovirus isolates from clinical samples collected between 2003 and 2010.


Identification of the isolates as HAdV was accomplished by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and confirmed by a set of species and type specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR).


Of the 105 isolates, 42% were identified as belonging to HAdV-B, 60% as HAdV–C, and 1% as HAdV-E. We identified a total of six co-infections by PCR, of which five were HAdV-B/HAdV-C co-infections, and one was a co-infection of two HAdV-C types: HAdV-5/HAdV-6. Molecular typing by PCR enabled the identification of eight genotypes of human adenoviruses; HAdV-3 (n = 22), HAdV-7 (n = 14), HAdV-11 (n = 8), HAdV-1 (n = 22), HAdV-2 (20), HAdV-5 (n = 15), HAdV-6 (n = 3) and HAdV-4 (n = 1). The most abundant species in the characterized collection of isolates was HAdV-C, which is concordant with existing data for worldwide epidemiology of HAdV respiratory infections.


We identified three species, HAdV-B, -C and -E, among patients with ILI over the course of 7 years in Egypt, with at least eight diverse types circulating.

Adenovirus; Influenza-like illness; Respiratory illness; Egypt