Open Access Research article

Genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium parasite IS NOT associated with severity of disease in an endemic area in Sudan

Nagla Gasmelseed1*, Nhashal E Karamino1, Mohammed O Abdelwahed1, Anas O Hamdoun2 and Ahmed E Elmadani2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, University of Gezira, Wadmedani, Sudan

2 Department of Medical Imaging, National Cancer Institute, University of Gezira, Wadmedani, Sudan

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:469  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-469

Published: 27 August 2014



Over 650 million people globally are at risk of schistosomiasis infection, while more than 200 million people are infected of which the higher disease rates occur in children. Eighty three students between 6-20 years (mean 12.45 ± 3.2) from Quran School for boys in Radwan village, Gezira state were recruited to investigate for the relationship between the genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium strains and the severity of the disease.


Schistosoma haematobium infection was detected by filtration of urine. Ultrasonography was done on each study subject, while PCR technique was used for genotyping via random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with A01, A02, A12, Y20 and A13 primers. A01 primer gave three different genotypes (A01-1, A01-2 and A01-3).


About 54.2% (45/83) were S. haematobium egg positive by urine filtration. On assessment of the upper and lower urinary tract by ultrasound technique, 61.4% (51/83) were positiveand73.3% (60/83) samples were PCR positive. No significant difference was found when comparing the three different genotypes with severity of the disease.


This study concludes that no association was found between the different genotypes of S.haemtobium and the severity of the disease. Examination of more samples from different areas to identify any possible differences between the parasites genes and disease severity was recommended.

S. haematobium; Genetic diversity; Ultrasound; Severity; Gezira State; Sudan