Factors associated with tuberculosis by HIV status in the Brazilian national surveillance system: a cross sectional study
1 Lab-Epi UFES – Laboratório de Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Marechal Campos, 1468- Maruípe, Vitória, ES, Brazil
2 School of Nursing, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Espírito Santo, Brazil
3 Post-Graduate Program in Infectious Diseases, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Espírito Santo, Brazil
4 Post-Graduate Program in Public Health, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Espírito Santo, Brazil
5 TB National Consultant, Pan American Health Organization, São Paulo, Brazil
6 Department of Public Health, University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil
7 Center for Tuberculosis Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:415 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-415Published: 28 July 2014
Over the last decade tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in Brazil have been steadily declining. However, this downward trend has not been observed among HIV-infected patients. We describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of TB patients by HIV status using the Brazilian National Surveillance System.
All TB diagnoses with HIV status information between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011 were categorized as either HIV or non-HIV at time of TB diagnosis. Co-infected patients (TB-HIV) were compared to TB patients with no HIV-infection using a hierarchical logistic regression model using Stata 13.0.
The prevalence of TB-HIV co-infection was 19% among adults ≥ 15 years of age. We analyzed data from 243,676 individuals, of whom 46,466 were TB-HIV and 197,210 were only TB cases. The following factors increased risk of co-infection: male sex (OR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), 20 to 39 years of age (OR = 4.82, 95% CI 4.34-5.36), black (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.13), 4–7 years of education (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.19-1.28), diagnosed following default (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.13-6.25), presenting with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary forms of TB simultaneously (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 1.56-5.02), presenting with histopathologic examination suggestive of TB (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.13-4.07). Co-infected patients were less likely to live in rural areas (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.42-0.48), have diabetes (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.40-0.50) and be smear positive (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.95), and co-infected patients had higher risk of default (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 2.36-3.71) and death from TB (OR = 5.16, 95% CI 43.04-5.77).
The prevalence of co-infection with HIV among TB patients is 19% in Brazil. By identifying predictors of co-infection targeted interventions can be developed to prevent both TB and HIV, and to diagnose each disease earlier and ultimately decrease poor treatment outcomes and death.