Cytokine response to M. tb PPD in Malawian and Gambian infants vaccinated in the first week of life. The production of IFN-γ (P = 0.0024), IL-1α (P = 0.0020), IL-1ra (P = 0.0008), IL-6 (0.0002), TNF-β (P = 0.0032), TGF-α (p = 0.0027), IL-12p70 (P = 0.0145), and RANTES (P = 0.0274) was significantly higher in Gambian infants (n = 24) than Malawian infants (n = 30) while most of the other cytokines measured showed similar responses (P > 0.05). The median levels of each cytokine are indicated in red (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, Mann Whitney test).
Hur et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 14:184 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-184