Open Access Research article

Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from stools in Madagascar

Frederique Randrianirina1, Elisoa Hariniana Ratsima1, Lova Ramparany1, Rindra Randremanana2, Hanitra Clara Rakotonirina3, Tahiry Andriamanantena3, Fanjasoa Rakotomanana2, Soatiana Rajatonirina2, Vincent Richard2 and Antoine Talarmin4*

Author Affiliations

1 Clinical Biology Center, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar

2 Epidemiologic Unit, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar

3 Molecular Biology Unit, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar

4 Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:104  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-104

Published: 25 February 2014

Abstract

Background

Diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries, and are one of the main causes of hospital admissions in Madagascar. The Pasteur Institute of Madagascar undertook a study to determine the prevalence and the pathogenicity of bacterial, viral and protozoal enteropathogens in diarrheal and non-diarrheal stools of children aged less than 5 years in Madagascar. We present here the results of the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria isolated during this study.

Methods

The study was conducted in the community setting in 14 districts of Madagascar from October 2008 to May 2009. Conventional methods and PCR were used to identify the bacteria; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using an agar diffusion method for enterobacteriaceae and MICs were measured by an agar dilution method for Campylobacter sp. In addition to the strains isolated during this study, Salmonella sp and Shigella sp isolated at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 2005 to 2009 were included in the analysis to increase the power of the study.

Results

Twenty-nine strains of Salmonella sp, 35 strains of Shigella sp, 195 strains of diarrheagenic E. coli, 203 strains of C. jejuni and 71 strains of C. coli isolated in the community setting were tested for antibiotic resistance. Fifty-five strains of Salmonella sp and 129 strains of Shigella sp isolated from patients referred to the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar were also included in the study. Many E. coli and Shigella isolates (around 80%) but fewer Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. A small proportion of strains of each species were resistant to ciprofloxacin and only 3% of E. coli strains presented a resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The resistance of Campylobacter sp to ampicillin was the most prevalent, whereas less than 5% of isolates were resistant to each of the other antibiotics.

Conclusion

The highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for children with diarrhea in Madagascar and the emphasis should be placed on oral rehydration.

Keywords:
Antibiotic susceptibility; Bacterial pathogens; Madagascar; Diarrhea