Table 1

Epidemiologic and economic parameters used in the model
6 month transition probabilities* Mean and/or range Reference
Normal to HPV 6/11¥ 0 – 0.007 model calibration
Normal to lrHPV¥ 0 – 0.04 model calibration
HPV 6/11 to warts 0.34 [14]
lrHPV to warts 0.009 model calibration
Natural clearance HPV infection 0.65 [14]
Natural clearance genital warts 0.65 [16]
Screening costs Mean (€)
Cytology 50 [11]
Colposcopy 143 [11]
Biopsy 49 [11]
Treatment costs cancer Mean (€)
CIN 1 1,483 [11]
CIN 2 1,718 [11]
CIN 3 1,868 [11]
Cervical cancer stage 1 19,114 [11]
Cervical cancer stage 2 20,762 [11]
Cervical cancer stage 3 20,762 [11]
Cervical cancer stage 4 26,528 [11]
Treatment costs warts Mean (€)
GP 114 Table 3
STI clinic 285 Table 3
GP + STI clini 338 Table 3
QALY-losses Mean
CIN 1 0.026 [11]
CIN 2 0.010 [11]
CIN 3 0.080 [11]
Cervical cancer stage 1 0.03 [11]
Cervical cancer stage 2 0.10 [11]
Cervical cancer stage 3 0.10 [11]
Cervical cancer stage 4 0.38 [11]
Genital warts 0.018 [20]
Vaccine characteristics Bivalent Quadrivalent
Efficacy HPV 16/18 95% 95% [23]
Efficacy HPV 6/11 0% 95% [23]
Cross-protection HPV 31 79% 57% [4,5]
Cross-protection HPV 33 46% 0% [4,5]
Cross-protection HPV 45 76% 0% [4,5]
Duration of protection lifelong lifelong [25]
Vaccination costs per dose €105 €105

¥ transition probabilities are age dependent.

* 6-months’ probability of moving from one health state to another.

NA = not applicable; GP = general practitioner; STI = sexually transmitted infection; CIN = cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; HPV = human papillomavirus.

Westra et al.

Westra et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:75   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-75

Open Data