Table 2

Factors associated with VL in a ‘univariate’ model with ‘ward’ as random effect
Factors No. exposed OR † 95%CI ‡ P- value
Case (%)* Control (%)*
(n = 115) (n = 448)
Adult 95 (82.61) 393 (87.72) 0.68 0.35 – 1.31 0.25
Male sex 66 (57.4) 285 (63.6) 0.65 0.40 – 1.05 0.08
Married 69 (60.0) 325 (72.5) 0.55 0.34 – 0.91 0.02
Hindu religion 99 (86.1) 403 (89.9) 0.78 0.38 – 1.59 0.50
Literate 101 (87.8) 407 (90.9) 0.65 0.31 – 1.41 0.28
Large households (> 5 person) 54 (46.9) 125 (27.9) 2.39 1.46 – 3.93 0.001
Intravenous Drug use 6 (5.2) 13 (2.9) 2.30 0.69 – 7.66 0.17
Proximity to other VL cases within 50 m 52 (45.2) 32 (7.1) 6.60 3.69 – 11.82 <0.0001
Regular forest visit 59 (51.3) 67 (14.9) 6.08 3.49 – 10.61 <0.0001
Daily wage earner (vs fixed employment) 84 (73.0) 240 (53.6) 2.99 1.78 – 5.02 <0.0001
History of migration 66 (57.4) 214 (47.8) 1.75 1.08 – 2.83 0.02
Bed net use ever 83 (73.5) 330 (73.7) 1.06 0.62 – 1.81 0.81
Sleeping on a bed (vs on the floor) 94 (81.7) 439 (97.9) 0.09 0.03 – 0.24 <0.0001
Sleeping upstairs 1 (0.9) 121 (27.0) 0.03 0.01 – 0.21 0.001
Goat ownership 26 (22.6) 75 (16.7) 1.23 0.70 – 2.19 0.48
Cattle ownership 1 (0.9) 26 (5.8) 0.09 0.01 – 0.82 0.03
Pig ownership 34 (29.6) 149 (33.3) 0.86 0.52 – 1.44 0.58
Chickens/ducks ownership 14 (12.2) 76 (16.9) 0.62 0.31 – 1.22 0.16
Type of house
Thatched house, no windows 33 (28.7) 21 (4.7) Referent
Thatched house with windows 62 (53.9) 170 (37.9) 0.28 0.13 – 0.60 0.001
Brick house 20 (17.4) 257 (57.4) 0.05 0.02 – 0.12 <0.0001
Socio economic status (by asset score level)
Level 1 (poorest) 87 (75.7) 112 (25.0) Referent
Level 2 20 (17.4) 112 (25.0) 0.22 0.11 - 0.42 <0.0001
Level 3 7 (6.1) 112 (25.0) 0.09 0.03 - 0.23 <0.0001
Level 4 (least poor) 1 (0.9) 112 (25.0) 0.01 0.001 - 0.08 <0.0001

* Proportion (%) unless specified otherwise.

† OR, odds ratio; ‡CI, confidence interval with ‘ward’ as random effect.

Uranw et al.

Uranw et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:21   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-21

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