Epidemiology of bacteremia caused by uncommon non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria
1 Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
BMC Infectious Diseases 2013, 13:167 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-167Published: 8 April 2013
Prevalence of bacteremia caused by non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) has been increasing over the past decade. Although many studies have already investigated epidemiology of NFGNB bacteremia, most focused only on common NFGNB including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). Knowledge of uncommon NFGNB bacteremia is very limited. Our study aimed to investigate epidemiology and identify factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia.
This observational study was conducted at a university hospital in Thailand during July 1, 2007-Dec 31, 2008. All patients who had at least one blood culture positive for NFGNB and met the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome within 24 hours before/after obtaining the blood culture were enrolled. The NFGNB isolates that could not be satisfactorily identified by the standard biochemical assays were further characterized by molecular sequencing methods. To identify factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia, characteristics of patients in the uncommon NFGNB group were subsequently compared to patients in the common NFGNB group (AB and PA bacteremia).
Our study detected 223 clinical isolates of NFGNB in 221 unique patients. The major causative pathogens were AB (32.7%), followed by PA (27.8%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.4%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (4.9%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (2.7%). Infection-related mortality was 63.0% in the AB group, 40.3% in the PA group and 17.4% in the uncommon NFGNB group. Factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia (OR [95% CI]; p-value) were male sex (0.28 [0.14-0.53]; p < 0.001), hospital-acquired infection (0.23 [0.11-0.51]; p < 0.001), recent aminoglycosides exposure 0.23 [0.06-0.8]; p = 0.01), primary bacteremia (6.43 [2.89-14.2]; p < 0.001]), catheter related infection (4.48 [1.54-13.06]; p < 0.001) and recent vancomycin exposure (3.88 [1.35-11.1]; p = 0.02).
Our distribution of causative pathogens was slightly different from other studies. The common NFGNB group had a remarkably higher ID-mortality than the uncommon NFGNB group. Knowledge of factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia would help physicians to distinguish between low vs. high risk patients.