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Open Access Research article

Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial pneumonia: is the outcome more favorable in non-ventilated than ventilated patients?

Ya-Sung Yang1, Yi-Tzu Lee23, Tsai-Wang Huang4, Jun-Ren Sun5, Shu-Chen Kuo26, Chin-Hsuan Yang1, Te-Li Chen2*, Jung-Chung Lin1, Chang-Phone Fung2 and Feng-Yee Chang7

Author affiliations

1 Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

2 Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

3 Emergency Department, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

4 Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

5 Clinical Microbiology Laboratory Division of Clinical Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

6 National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County, Taiwan

7 Department of Health, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan

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Citation and License

BMC Infectious Diseases 2013, 13:142  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-142

Published: 19 March 2013

Abstract

Background

Acinetobacter baumannii hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is associated with a high mortality worldwide. Non-ventilated patients with HAP (NVHAP) caused by nosocomial pathogens are reported to have a more favorable outcome than those with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The current study was designed to determine whether bacteremic patients with A. baumannii NVHAP also have a lower mortality than those receiving assisted ventilation.

Methods

This retrospective 10-year study was conducted at a 2900-bed teaching hospital located in Northern Taiwan. The population consisted of 144 patients with A. baumannii bacteremia and HAP. Of these 96 had VAP and 48 had NVHAP. Charts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical manifestations, antimicrobial susceptibility, and 14-day mortality. Clonal relationships were determined by molecular typing.

Results

There were no significant differences between the two groups in comorbidities (Charlson scores). Patients with NVHAP were more likely to have developed bacteremia earlier, outside the ICU and undergone fewer invasive procedures. They had significantly lower APACHE II scores, fewer bilateral pneumonias and lower rates of antimicrobial resistance. No specific clones were identified in either group. The unadjusted (crude) 14-day mortality rates were not significantly different between the groups (NVHAP 43.8% vs. VAP 31.3%, p = 0.196). The adjusted 14-day mortality risk was significantly lower in ventilator-assisted patients (odds ratio = 0.201; 95% confidence interval = 0.075-0.538; p = 0.001).

Conclusions

Patients with bacteremic NVHAP and VAP caused by A. baumannii had similar crude mortality rates, but on logistic regression analysis those receiving ventilator assistance had a significantly lower mortality. This may have been due to better airway protection, more intensive monitoring with earlier diagnosis and treatment in patients with VAP, greater innate susceptibility to infection in those with NVHAP and differences in the virulence of A. baumannii.

Keywords:
Acinectobacter baumannii; Pneumonia; Hospital acquired; Ventilator