Table 1

Baseline, clinical and individual level characteristics of active adult study participants in Nigerian ART program (n = 628)
Characteristics
Number of participants (% of total) UATH (site %) ADH (site %) UBTH (site %) p-value§
Gender 0.31
Female 400 (63.7%) 128 (59.8%) 110 (67.1%) 162 (64.8%)
Male 228 (36.3%) 86 (40.2%) 54 (32.9%) 88 (35.2%)
Age at HAART Initiation (years)
Median (Inter-quartile range) 35 (30 – 41) 34 (29 – 41) 34 (29 – 38) 36 (30 – 45) 0.001
< 30 190 (30.3%) 70 (32.7%) 55 (33.5%) 65 (26%)
31 to 40 271 (43.1%) 89 (41.6%) 84 (51.2%) 98 (39.2%)
41 to 50 120 (19.1%) 43 (20.1%) 20 (12.2%) 57 (22.8%)
>51 47 (7.5%) 12 (5.6%) 5 (3.1%) 30 (12%)
Marital Status 0.001
Single 146 (23.2%) 43 (20.1%) 47 (28.7%) 56 (22.4%)
Married / Cohabiting 359 (57.2%) 136 (63.6%) 88 (53.7%) 135 (54%)
Separated 45 (7.2%) 5 (2.3%) 9 (5.5%) 31 (12.4%)
Divorced / Widowed 78 (12.4%) 30 (14%) 20 (12.2%) 28 (11.2%)
Currently married 0.07
Yes 359 (57.2%) 136 (63.6%) 88 (53.7%) 135 (54%)
No 269 (42.8%) 78 (36.4%) 76 (46.3%) 115 (46%)
Residential Distance (in kilometers) 0.001
Median (inter-quartile range) 25 (10 – 80) 46.5 (20 – 90) 23 (15 – 30) 10 (5 – 130)
< 50 402 (64%) 109 (50.9%) 133 (81.1%) 160 (64%)
51 to100 80 (12.7%) 54 (25.2%) 16 (9.8%) 10 (4%)
101 to 200 120 (19.1%) 44 (20.6%) 6 (3.7%) 70 (28%)
>200 26 (4.1%) 7 (3.3%) 9 (5.5%) 10 (4%)
HIV disclosure 0.34
Yes 595 (94.7%) 204 (95.3%) 158 (96.3%) 233 (93.2%)
No 33 (5.3%) 10 (4.7%) 6 (3.7%) 17 (6.8%)
Tuberculosis History 0.001
Yes 90 (14.3%) 18 (8.4%) 37 (22.6%) 35 (14%)
No 538 (85.7%) 196 (91.6%) 127 (77.4%) 215 (86%)
Baseline CD4 cell count (n = 613) 0.001
Median (inter-quartile range) 142 (85 – 223) 117 (72 – 175) 187 (111 – 266) 150 (88 – 241)
< 50 88 (14.4%) 42 (19.8%) 15 (9.3%) 31 (13%)
50 and < 200 336 (54.8%) 143 (67.5%) 74 (45.7%) 119 (49.8%)
200 and <350 155 (25.3%) 19 (9%) 54 (33.3%) 82 (34.3%)
350 and < 500 24 (3.9%) 4 (1.9%) 16 (9.9%) 4 (1.7%)
>=500 10 (1.6%) 4 (1.9%) 3 (1.9%) 3 (1.3%)
Baseline Hemoglobin (g/dl) (n = 546) 0.001
Median (inter-quartile range) 10.9 (9.3 – 12.4) 10.5 (8.8 – 11.9) 12.1 (10.8 – 13.9) 10.3 (8.9 – 11.6)
> =10 354 (64.9%) 107 (60.1%) 131 (84%) 116 (54.7%)
>=8 and <10 (Grade 1 anemia) 141 (25.8%) 57 (32%) 17 (10.9%) 67 (31.6%)
>=7 and <8 (Grade 2 anemia) 33 (6.0%) 7 (3.9%) 7 (4.5%) 19 (9%)
>=6.5 and <7 (Grade 3 anemia) 7 (1.3%) 3 (1.7%) 0 (0%) 4 (1.9%)
< 6.5 (Grade 4 anemia) 11 (2.0%) 4 (2.3%) 1 (0.6%) 6 (2.8%)
Baseline anemia (Hemoglobin < 10 g/dl) (n = 546)
Yes 192 (35.2%) 71 (39.9%) 25 (16%) 96 (45.3%)
No 354 (64.8%) 107 (60.1%) 131 (84%) 116 (54.7%)
Antiretroviral drug regimen at baseline 0.001
ZDV / 3TC / NVP or EFV 257 (40.9%) 58 (27.1%) 76 (46.3%) 123 (49.2%)
D4T / 3TC / NVP or EFV 50 (8.0%) 15 (7%) 10 (6.1%) 25 (10%)
TDF / 3TC of FTC / NVP or EFV 321 (51.1%) 141 (65.9%) 78 (47.6%) 102 (40.8%)
Baseline Functionality 0.001
Working (70-100%) 170 (81.3%) 71 (44.7%) 238 (96.8%)
Ambulatory (50-70%) 479 (78%) 38 (18.2%) 78 (49.1%) 7 (2.8%)
Bedridden (<50%) 123 (20%) 1 (%) 10 (6.3%) 1 (0.4%)
12 (2%)
Reason for ART eligibility
CD4 cell count < 200 188 (90.4%) 91 (56.5%) 159 (67.1%) 0.001
CD4 cell count < 350 and WHO Stage 3 438 (72.2%) 14 (6.7%) 55 (34.2%) 75 (31.7%)
WHO Stage 4 144 (23.8%) 1 (0.5%) 14 (8.7%) 3 (1.3%)
Other (PMTCT plus, etc.) 18 (3%) 5 (2.4%) 1 (0.6%) 0 (0%)
6 (1%)
Drug adherence by pharmacy refill record calculated over 12 months 0.001
>= 95% 576 (91.7%) 202 (94.4%) 137 (83.5%) 237 (94.8%)
< 95% 52 (8.3%) 12 (5.6%) 27 (16.5%) 13 (5.2%)
Drug adherence by self-report at 12 months 0.08
>= 95% 544 (86.6%) 193 (90.2%) 135 (82.3%) 216 (86.4%)
< 95% 84 (13.4%) 21 (9.8%) 29 (17.7%) 34 (13.6%)
Virologic suppression (<400 copies) (n = 591) 0.001
Yes 453 (76.7%) 167 (78.4%) 94 (71.2%) 192 (78%)
No 138 (23.3%) 46 (21.6%) 38 (28.8%) 54 (22%)
Immunologic recovery (CD4 cell change >=50) (n = 596) 0.01
Yes 461 (77.4%) 178 (84.4%) 110 (74.3%) 173 (73%)
No 135 (22.6%) 33 (15.6%) 38 (25.7%) 64 (27%)
Employment status 0.001
Employed 524 (83.4%) 183 (85.5%) 116 (70.7%) 225 (90%)
Unemployed 99 (15.8%) 27 (12.6%) 48 (29.3%) 24 (9.6%)
Retired 1 (0.2%) 1 (0.5) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Student 4 (0.6%) 3 (1.4%) 0 (0%) 1 (0.4%)
Highest educational achievement 0.001
No formal education 301 (47.9%) 92 (43%) 80 (48.8%) 129 (51.6%)
Primary education 136 (21.7%) 54 (25.2%) 22 (13.4%) 60 (24%)
Secondary education 34 (5.4%) 14 (6.5%) 17 (10.4%) 3 (1.2%)
Post-secondary / Tertiary / Advanced Education (M.Sc., Ph.D.) 157(25%) 54 (25.3%) 45 (27.4%) 58 (23.2%)
Socio-economic class 0.001
Class 1 23 (3.7%) 13 (6.1%) 2 (1.2%) 8 (3.2%)
Class 2 99 (15.6%) 27 (12.6%) 22 (13.4%) 50 (20%)
Class 3 276 (44%) 79 (36.9%) 63 (38.4%) 134 (53.6%)
Class 4 207 (33%) 88 (41.1%) 66 (40.3%) 53 (21.2%)
Class 5 23 (3.7%) 7 (3.3%) 11 (6.7%) 5 (2%)
Current smoker 0.65
Yes 11 (1.8%) 5 (2.3%) 3 (1.8%) 3 (1.2%)
No 617 (98.2%) 209 (97.7%) 161 (98.2%) 247 (98.8%)
Current drug user 0.24
Yes 1 (0.2%) 0 (0%) 1 (0.6%) 0 (0%)
No 627 (99.8%) 214 (100%) 163 (99.4%) 250 (100%)
Current alcohol user 0.001
Yes 53 (8.4%) 2 (0.9%) 29 (17.7%) 22 (8.8%
No 575 (91.6%) 212 (99.1%) 135 (82.3%) 228 (91.2%)
Current herbal drug user 0.03
Yes 20 (3.2%) 3 (1.4%) 10 (6.1%) 7 (2.8%)
No 608 (96.8%) 211 (98.6%) 154 (93.9%) 243 (7.2%)

Categorical variables expressed as n (%) and continuous variables almost expressed as median (inter-quartile range).

§ p-values comparing study participant variables across the three study sites calculated from Kruskal-Wallis test statistic for continuous variables and Pearson χ2 test statistic for categorical variables.

Anude et al.

Anude et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013 13:113   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-113

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