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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The impact of Rotavirus mass vaccination on hospitalization rates, nosocomial Rotavirus gastroenteritis and secondary blood stream infections

Manuela Zlamy1, Sabine Kofler1, Dorothea Orth3, Reinhard Würzner3, Peter Heinz-Erian2, Andrea Streng4 and Martina Prelog14*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pediatrics, Pediatrics I, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstr. 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria

2 Department of Pediatrics, Pediatrics II, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstr. 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria

3 Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Social Medicine, Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Fritz-Pregl-Str. 3, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria

4 Department of Pediatrics, University of Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 2, 97080, Würzburg, Germany

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2013, 13:112  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-112

Published: 1 March 2013

Abstract

Background

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of universal mass vaccination (UMV) against rotavirus (RV) on the hospitalization rates, nosocomial RV infections and RV-gastroenteritis (GE)-associated secondary blood stream infections (BSI).

Methods

The retrospective evaluation (2002–2009) by chart analysis included all clinically diagnosed and microbiologically confirmed RV-GE cases in a large tertiary care hospital in Austria. The pre-vaccination period (2002–2005) was compared with the recommended and early funded (2006–2007) and the funded (2008–2009) vaccination periods. Primary outcomes were RV-GE-associated hospitalizations, secondary outcomes nosocomial RV disease, secondary BSI and direct hospitalization costs for children and their accompanying persons.

Results

In 1,532 children with RV-GE, a significant reduction by 73.9% of hospitalized RV-GE cases per year could be observed between the pre-vaccination and the funded vaccination period, which was most pronounced in the age groups 0–11 months (by 87.8%), 6–10 years (by 84.2%) and 11–18 years (88.9%). In the funded vaccination period, a reduction by 71.9% of nosocomial RV-GE cases per year was found compared to the pre-vaccination period. Fatalities due to nosocomial RV-GE were only observed in the pre-vaccination period (3 cases). Direct costs of hospitalized, community-acquired RV-GE cases per year were reduced by 72.7% in the funded vaccination period. The reduction of direct costs for patients (by 86.9%) and accompanying persons (86.2%) was most pronounced in the age group 0–11 months.

Conclusions

UMV may have contributed to the significant decrease of RV-GE-associated hospitalizations, to a reduction in nosocomial RV infections and RV-associated morbidity due to secondary BSI and reduced direct hospitalization costs. The reduction in nosocomial cases is an important aspect considering severe disease courses in hospitalized patients with co-morbidities and death due to nosocomial RV-GE.

Keywords:
Rotavirus; Gastroenteritis; Blood stream infection; Children; Universal mass vaccination