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Open Access Research article

Neuropsychological outcomes in adults commencing highly active anti-retroviral treatment in South Africa: a prospective study

John A Joska18*, Jennifer Westgarth-Taylor2, Jacqueline Hoare3, Kevin GF Thomas4, Robert Paul5, Landon Myer6 and Dan J Stein7

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

2 ACSENT laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

3 Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

4 ACSENT laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

5 Department of Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA

6 Centre for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology & Research, School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town and International Centre for AIDS Care & Treatment Programs, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, Manhattan, USA

7 Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

8 Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Groote Schuur Hospital, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:39  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-39

Published: 15 February 2012

Abstract

Background

Infection with HIV may result in significant neuropsychological impairment, especially in late stage disease. To date, there have been no cohort studies of the impact of highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART) in South Africa where clade C HIV is predominant.

Methods

Participants in the current study were recruited from a larger study of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and included a group of individuals commencing HAART (n = 82). Baseline and one-year neuropsychological function was assessed using a detailed battery, and summary global deficit scores (GDS) obtained. Associations with change in GDS were calculated.

Results

Participants had a median CD4 cell count of 166 at baseline and 350 at follow-up. There were significant difference across groups of GDS severity at baseline with respect to level of education and GDS change at one year (p = 0.00 and 0.00 respectively). Participants with severe impairment at baseline improved significantly more than those with lesser degrees of impairment. Significant improvements were observed in the domains of attention, verbal fluency, motor function, and executive functions. There were unadjusted associations between GDS change and male gender, lower levels of education, baseline CD4 count and baseline GDS severity. In an adjusted model, only baseline GDS severity (p = 0.00) remained significant, with a lower level of education nearing significance (p = 0.05). The overall model was highly significant (p = 00; r-squared = 0.58).

Discussion

In individuals in late stage HIV commencing HAART in South Africa, those with severe baseline neuropsychological impairment improved significantly more than those less impaired. While improvement across a number of neuropsychological domains was observed, high rates of impairment persisted.

Conclusions

The effects of HAART and participant variables, such as test experience, require clarification. Studies with larger comparison groups, and where HIV disease characteristics are needed to establish whether the trends we identified are clinically meaningful.

Keywords:
HIV neuropsychology; Clade C; Combination anti-retroviral therapy; Neuropsychological outcomes