Table 1

Maternal and infant characteristics by exposure to infant HIV status (N=737)
Characteristics Total N = 737 HIV -uninfected N = 644 HIV- infected* N = 93 P-value#
Baseline Maternal Characteristics
Age in years, Median (IQR) 23 (21,25) 23 (21,25) 24 (21,26) 0.082
Hindu Religion, n (%) 570 (78) 493 (77) 77 (83) 0.212
Married, n (%) 714 (97) 624 (98) 90 (97) 0.681
Nuclear Family, n (%) 351 (48) 306 (48) 45 (48) 0.928
≤ Primary School Education, n (%) 294 (40) 250 (39) 44 (47) 0.129
Housewife/Unemployed, n (%) 594 (81) 525 (82) 69 (74) 0.066
Parity, Median (IQR) 1 (0, 2) 1 (0, 2) 1 (1, 2) 0.004
Gestational Age at Delivery, Median (IQR) 32 (28,35) 32 (28,35) 32 (26,34) 0.069
Hemoglobin at Delivery, Median (IQR) 10.7 (9.2, 11.9) 10.8 (9.2, 10.8) 10.1 (8.8, 11.5) <0.0001
CD4 Counts (in 100 s), Median (IQR) 4.6 (3.1, 6.5) 4.7 (3.34, 6.4) 3.2 (1.9, 5.3) <0.0001
log10 Viral Load, Median (IQR) 3.9 (3.2, 4.5) 3.8 (3.1, 4.4) 4.7 (4.0, 5.1) <0.0001
Baseline Infant Characteristics
Male Gender, n(%) 390 (53) 343 (53) 47 (51) 0.623
HIV Positive at Birth, n (%) 28 (4) -- 28 (30) --
Birth Weight, Median (IQR) 2.6 (2.4, 3.0) 2.7 (2.4, 3.0) 2.6 (2.5, 2.6) 0.292
Low Birth Weight (< 2.5 kg) n (%) 207 (28) 181 (28) 26 (28) 0.941
Birth Length, Median (IQR) 46 (45, 48) 46 (45, 48) 46 (45, 47) 0.865
Weight for Height Z-score, Median (IQR) −0.03 (−1.1, 0.6) −0.03 (−1.2, 0.7) −0.04 (−0.8, 0.6) 0.908
Wasting, n (%) 62 (10) 57 (11) 5 (7) 0.299
Length for Age Z-score, Median (IQR) −1.7 (−2.2, –1.0) −1.7 (−2.2, –1.0) −1.7 (−2.6, –1.2) 0.922
Stunting, n (%) 339 (47) 295 (46) 44 (48) 0.795
Weight for Age Z-score, Median (IQR) −1.5 (−2.0, –0.7) −1.5 (−2.0, –0.7) −1.7 (−2.0, –0.7) 0.408
Underweight, n (%) 190 (26) 165 (26) 25 (27) 0.828
Infant Gestational Age in Weeks, Median (IQR) 38 (38, 38) 38 (38, 38) 38 (38, 38) 0.434
Hemoglobin at Birth, Median (IQR) 17.3 (15.7, 18.7) 17.3 (15.7, 18.8) 17.3 (15.7, 18.5) 0.868
Normal Vaginal Delivery, n (%) 590 (80) 513 (80) 77 (83) 0.513
Follow-up Variables
Exclusive Breastfeeding (days), Median (IQR) 98 (97, 100) 98 (97, 100) 98 (72, 100) 0.606
Exclusive Breastfeeding, n (%)
< 1 Month 61 (8) 54 (8) 7 (8) 0.741
1 – 4 Months 587 (80) 512 (79) 75 (81)
4 – 6 Months 46 (6) 42 (6) 4 (4)
>6 Months 43 (6) 36 (6) 7 (8)
Grade 3 or 4 Adverse Event, n (%) 261 (35) 214 (33) 47 (51) 0.001
Hospitalization, n (%) 156 (21) 122 (19) 34 (37) <0.0001

* HIV-infected group includes infants infected at any time during the 12-month follow-up period.

# P values for comparison of median values based on Wilcoxon Mann–Whitney U test, and for comparison of proportions, based on χ2 test.

Ram et al.

Ram et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:282   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-282

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