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Open Access Highly Accessed Case report

Triple valve endocarditis by mycobacterium tuberculosis. A case report

Quratulain Shaikh* and Faisal Mahmood

Author Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Stadium Road, PO BOX: 3500, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:231  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-231

Published: 27 September 2012

Abstract

Background

Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis have been observed at autopsy in the heart, pre-dominantly in the myocardium and endocardium, but rarely involving the coronary vessels and valvular structures. Mycobacterium tuberculosis valvular endocarditis is extremely rare, with most reports coming from autopsy series.

Case presentation

We report the case of a 17 year old immunocompetent girl who presented with history of fever, malaise, foot gangrene and a left sided hemiparesis. On investigation she was found to have infective endocarditis involving the aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves. She had developed a right middle cerebral artery stroke. She underwent dual valve replacement and tricuspid repair. The vegetations showed granulomatous inflammation but blood cultures and other biological specimen cultures were negative for any organisms. She was started on antituberculous treatment and anticoagulation.

Conclusion

This is the first reported case of triple valve endocarditis by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in an immunocompetent host. Especially important is the fact that the right heart is involved which has been historically described in the setting of intravenous drug abuse.

This implies that Tuberculosis should be considered in cases of culture negative endocarditis in endemic areas like Pakistan even in immunocompetent hosts.

Keywords:
Immunocompetent; Endocarditis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis