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Open Access Research article

Renal function in HIV-infected children and adolescents treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and protease inhibitors

Giuseppe Pontrelli*, Nicola Cotugno*, Donato Amodio, Paola Zangari, Hyppolite K Tchidjou, Stefania Baldassari, Paolo Palma and Stefania Bernardi

Author Affiliations

University Department of Pediatrics. Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Piazza Sant'Onofrio, 4, 00165 Rome, Italy

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:18  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-18

Published: 23 January 2012

Abstract

Background

Kidney disease is an important complication in HIV infected people, and this may be related to infection or antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our aim is to assess renal function in HIV infected paediatric patients, who may be particularly affected and are likely to take ART for longer than adults, and investigate the long term role of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) alone or co-administered with Ritonavir-boosted Protease Inhibitors (PI).

Methods

Serum creatinine, phosphate and potassium levels, with estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), had been prospectively evaluated for 2 years in a cohort of HIV infected children and adolescents (age 9-18) on ART, and data analyzed according to the exposure to TDF or simultaneous TDF and PI.

Results

Forty-nine patients were studied (57% female, mean age 14). Sixty-three percent were treated with ART containing TDF (Group A), and 37% without TDF (Group B); 47% with concomitant use of TDF and PI (Group C) and 53% without this combination (Group D). The groups didn't differ for age, gender or ethnicity. The median creatinine increased in the entire cohort and in all the groups analyzed; eGFR decreased from 143.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline to 128.9 after 2 years (p = 0.006) in the entire cohort. Three patients presented a mild eGFR reduction, all were on TDF+PI. Phosphatemia decreased significantly in the entire cohort (p = 0.0003) and in TDF+PI group (p = 0.0128) after 2 years. Five patients (10%) developed hypophosphatemia (Division of Acquired Immune Deficiency AE grade 1 or 2), and four of them were on TDF+PI.

Conclusions

Renal function decrease and hypophosphatemia occur over time in HIV infected children and adolescents on ART. The association with co-administration of TDF and PI appears weak, and further studies are warranted.