Table 5

Multivariate analyses of the association between single and multiple human papillomavirus infections and selected subjects’ characteristics
Single infection vs. negative (n = 2845) Multiple infection vs. negative (n = 2746)
No. tested Adjusted model1 No. tested Adjusted model1
POR 95% CI POR 95% CI
Age group (years)
 18 268 3.1 1.4–6.8 257 3.7 1.2–11.8
 19 287 3.5 1.6–7.5 273 4.1 1.3–12.9
 20–21 382 3.1 1.5–6.5 369 4.0 1.3–12.5
 22–25 401 3.1 1.5–6.4 387 3.8 1.2–11.7
 26–35 301 2.4 1.1–4.9 279 1.5 0.4–4.9
 36–45 309 0.9 0.4–2.1 304 1.4 0.4–5.0
 46–55 464 1.1 0.5–2.5 451 0.97 0.3–3.5
 56–65 433 1 reference 426 1 reference
P-value for trend <0.001 0.001
Residential area
 Rural 305 1 reference 301 1 reference
 Suburban 359 1.3 0.7–2.4 344 0.9 0.4–2.0
 Urban 2176 1.4 0.9–2.4 2097 1.0 0.6–1.9
 Unknown 5 - - 4 - -
P-value for trend 0.2 0.8
Country of birth
 Spain 2616 1 reference 2528 1 reference
 Other countries 229 2.0 1.3–3.0 218 2.2 1.3–3.5
Marital status
 Married 1120 1 reference 1097 1 reference
 Single 1073 2.4 1.5–4.1 1034 3.2 1.4–7.2
 Cohabiting 483 2.1 1.3–3.6 452 2.0 0.9–4.7
 Divorced/Separated 114 2.6 1.3–5.2 110 5.4 2.1–14.2
 Widowed 55 3.5 1.1–11.0 53 7.0 1.3–37.9
Level of education attainment
 No formal education 160 1 reference 162 1 reference
 Primary completed 600 1.3 0.6–3.0 584 0.7 0.3–1.5
 Secondary  completed 1139 1.3 0.6–2.8 1095 0.6 0.3–1.4
 University or higher 943 1.1 0.5–2.3 902 0.5 0.2–1.0
 Unknown 3 - - 3 - -
P-value for trend 0.4 0.03
Tobacco smoking status
 Never smoked 1478 1 reference 1438 1 reference
 Ex-smoker 412 1.1 0.7–1.7 398 1.0 0.5–1.8
 Current smoker 954 1.7 1.3–2.3 909 1.6 1.1–2.4
 Unknown 1 - - 1 - -
P-value for trend <0.001 0.005
Ever use of condoms
 Never used 612 1 reference 582 1 reference
 Ex or current user 2233 0.7 0.4–1.0 2164 1.1 0.6–1.9
Systematic condom use in last 12 months*
 No 1761 1 reference 1707 1 reference
 Yes 921 0.8 0.6–1.1 880 0.7 0.5–1.0
 Unknown 12 - - 11 - -
Lifetime number of sexual partners
 1 1487 1 reference 1447 1 reference
 2 528 1.6 1.1–2.4 504 2.3 1.3–3.9
 3 337 3.4 2.3–5.0 319 6.0 3.5–10.2
 ≥4 482 3.7 2.6–5.4 466 8.1 5.0–13.3
 Unknown 11 - - 10 - -
p-value for trend <0.001 <0.001
Age at first sexual intercourse (years)
 ≤14 104 0.7 0.2–2.3 100 0.4 0.1–2.4
 15–16 589 0.8 0.3–2.5 567 0.6 0.1–2.8
 17–18 973 0.9 0.3–2.6 941 0.7 0.1–3.3
 19–20 459 1.1 0.3–3.2 440 0.8 0.2–3.7
 21–25 567 1.4 0.5–4.2 548 1.0 0.2–4.8
 ≥26 138 1 reference 136 1 reference
 Unknown 15 - - 14 - -
P-value for trend 0.03 0.07
Current partner circumcised
 No 2138 1 reference 2079 1 reference
 Yes 343 0.9 0.6–1.4 327 0.7 0.4–1.3
 Unknown 364 - - 340 - -
History of genital warts
 No 2780 1 reference 2684 1 reference
 Yes 59 2.8 1.5–5.1 58 4.4 2.3–8.8
 Unknown 6 - - 4 - -

POR, prevalence odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

1Adjusted model: adjusted for age, Autonomous Community, country of birth, marital status, level of education, smoking habits, lifetime number of sexual partners, and history of genital warts.

*Among women with a sexual partner in the last 12 months.

Bold font indicates a significant effect (P < 0.05).

Roura et al.

Roura et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:145   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-145

Open Data