Table 1

Studies reporting chlamydia prevalence data, identified in general practice or community settings
Study Location Participants Study design Specimen type Response rate (%) Sex Age (years) Study period Tested (n) Positive (n) Prevalence % (95% CI)
General Population
Hocking [16] VIC (Melb) Women recruited from the telephone directory Cross-sectional survey Urine 43 F 18–35 2003–2004 657 6 0.9 (0.3, 2.0)
(18–24) 135 5 3.7 (1.2, 8.4)
(25–35) 489 1 0.2 (0.0, 1.1)
Community
Debattista [17] QLD (Bris) University students at residential colleges Cross-sectional survey Urine 30–50 F <25 1997 178 2 1.1 (0.1, 4.0)*
M 96 0 0 (0.0, 3.8)*
Debattista [18] QLD (Bris) High school students Cross-sectional survey Urine 30–50 F 15–18 1998–2001 516 12 2.3 (1.2, 4.0)**
M (1998) 170 2 1.2 (0.2, 4.6)*
(1999) 147 5 3.4 (1.3, 8.2)*
(2000) 101 0 0 (0.0, 4.6)*
(2001) 98 5 5.1 (1.9, 12.1)*
1998–2001 658 3 0.5 (0.1, 1.3)**
(1998) 339 0 0 (0.0, 1.4)*
(1999) 132 1 0.8 (0.0, 4.8)*
(2000) 94 0 0 (0.0, 4.9)*
(2001) 93 2 2.2 (0.4, 8.3)*
Bowden [19] ACT High school students Cross-sectional survey F: urine/ swab 31 F 15–20 2002–2003 273 2 0.7 (0.1, 2.6)
M 179 3 1.7 (0.3, 4.8)
M: urine
Davis [20] ACT Tertiary students recruited at outreach screening services Clinical outreach pilot Urine 29.4 M/F 16–26 2007 445 8 1.8 (0.1, 3.5)*
Gold [21] VIC (rural/ regional) Men attending rural football clubs Cross-sectional survey Urine 85 M 16–29 2006–2007 77 3 3.9 (0.8, 11.0)
Wade [22] VIC (Melb) Heterosexual men attending sporting clubs Cross-sectional survey Urine 87 M 16–29 n.r. 47 4 8.5 (2.4, 20.4)**
Buhrer-Skinner [23] QLD (Towns-ville) Individuals attending outreach screening services set up in a variety of community locations Cross-sectional survey M: urine n.r. M/F 21A 2004–2005 303 15 5.0 (2.8, 8.0)*
F: urine/ swab (M) 25 75 5 Army: 6.7 (2.2, 14.9)
(M/F) 21 95 5 University: 5.3 (1.7, 11.9)
(M/F) 17 68 0 High school festivities: 0 (0, 5.3)
(M/F) 25 65 5 Backpackers: 7.7 (2.5, 17.0)
Kong [24]; Kong [25] VIC (rural/ regional) Young people attending sporting clubs Cross-sectional survey Urine >95 F 16–29 2007 121 9 7.4 (3.5, 13.7)**
M 426 19 4.5 (2.7, 6.9)
Sacks-Davis [26] VIC (Melb) Young people attending a music festival Cross-sectional survey Urine 21 F 16–29 2009 46 0 0 (0.0, 7.7)*
M 21 1 4.8 (0.1, 23.8)*
Davies [27] NSW (Sydney) Young international backpackers recruited at hostels Cross-sectional survey F: swab 45.7 F 18–30 2009 207 8 3.9 (1.7, 7.5)
M: urine 50.2 M (≤25) 166 5 3.0 (1.0, 6.9)*
(26–30) 41 3 7.3 (1.5, 19.9)*
18–30 225 7 3.1 (1.3, 6.3)
(≤25) 164 6 3.7 (1.4, 7.8)*
(26–30) 61 1 1.6 (0.4, 8.8)*
General Practice
Heal [28] QLD (Mackay) Young people attending general practices Cross-sectional survey Urine 68 F/M 18–24 2001 443 17 3.8 (2.3, 6.1)*
Chiang [29] VIC (rural) Women attending general practices Cross-sectional survey Swab n.d. F 15–35 n.r. 67 9 13.4 (6.3, 24.0)*
Toyne [30] ACT Women attending general practices Cross-sectional survey Swab n.d. F 17–39 2002–2003 353 4 1.1 (0.3, 2.9)
Bowden [31] ACT Women attending general practices Cluster randomised controlled trial Swab/ urine 6.9 in intervention; 4.5 in control F 16–39 2004–2005 1593 69 4.3 (3.4, 5.5)
(16–19) 196 10 5.1 (2.5, 9.2)
(20–25) 576 37 6.4 (4.6, 8.7)
(26–30) 425 19 4.5 (2.7, 6.9)
(31–39) 396 3 0.7 (0.2, 2.2)
Hince [32] WA (Perth) Men attending general practices Cross-sectional survey Urine 63–100 M 15–29 2007–2008 383 14 3.7 (2.0, 6.1)**
Bilardi [33] VIC (urban and rural) Women attending general practices Cluster randomised controlled trial Any 6.2–11.5 F 16–24 2008–2009 843 66 7.8 (6.1, 9.9)*
Walker [34] Australia-wide Women attending primary health care clinics Cross-sectional survey Swab 66 F 16–25 2007–2008 738 25 3.4 (1.5, 5.3)

Studies are presented in order of publication year and author. * Confidence intervals calculated by authors. ** Re-calculated confidence intervals differ from those reported. A Median. ACT, Australian Capital Territory; Bris, Brisbane; F, female; GP, general practice, general practitioner; M, male; Melb, Melbourne; NA, not applicable; n.d., not determined; n.r., not reported; NSW, New South Wales; QLD, Queensland; VIC, Victoria; WA, Western Australia. Participant numbers reflect numbers from which epidemiological data was calculated, with sub-group numbers (e.g. by age or year) in brackets.

Lewis et al.

Lewis et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012 12:113   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-113

Open Data