Factors associated with presentation to care with advanced HIV disease in Brussels and Northern France: 1997-2007
1 CIRE Nord, Lille, France
2 EA2694 Laboratoire de Biostatistique Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Lille, France
3 Service Universitaire des Maladies Infectieuse Saint-Luc, Bruxelles, Belgique
4 CH Boulogne, Boulogne, France
5 CH Dunkerque, Dunkerque, France
6 Service Universitaire des Maladies Infectieuses et du Voyageur, Tourcoing, France
7 CH Lens, Lens, France
8 CH Valenciennes, Valenciennes, France
9 COREVIH Nord Pas-de-Calais, Tourcoing, France
10 ATIP Avenir INSERM U995, Lille, France
BMC Infectious Diseases 2011, 11:11 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-11Published: 12 January 2011
Our objective was to determine the frequency and determinants of presentation to care with advanced HIV disease in patients who discover their HIV diagnosis at this stage as well as those with delayed presentation to care after HIV diagnosis in earlier stages.
We collected data on 1,819 HIV-infected patients in Brussels (Belgium) and Northern France from January 1997 to December 2007. "Advanced HIV disease" was defined as CD4 count <200/mm3 or clinically-defined AIDS at study inclusion and was stratified into two groups: (a) late testing, defined as presentation to care with advanced HIV disease and HIV diagnosis ≤6 months before initiation of HIV care; and (b) delayed presentation to care, defined as presentation to care with advanced HIV disease and HIV diagnosis >6 months before initiation of HIV care. We used multinomial logistic regression to determine the factors associated with delayed presentation to care and late testing.
Of the 570 patients initiating care with advanced HIV disease, 475 (83.3%) were tested late and 95 (16.7%) had delayed presentation to care. Risk factors for delayed presentation to care were: age 30-50 years, injection drug use, and follow-up in Brussels. Risk factors for late testing were: sub-Saharan African origin, male gender, and older age. HIV transmission through heterosexual contact was associated with an increased risk of both delayed presentation to care and late testing. Patients who initiated HIV care in 2003-2007 were less likely to have been tested late or to have a delayed presentation to care than patients who initiated care before 2003.
A considerable proportion of HIV-infected patients present to care with advanced HIV disease. Late testing, rather than a delay in initiating care after earlier HIV testing, is the main determinant of presentation to care with advanced HIV disease. The factors associated with delay presentation to care differ from those associated with late testing. Different strategies should be developed to optimize early access to care in these two groups.