Table 2

Determinants of seropositivity among HPV-16 DNA positive women at enrollment; Contraceptive, pregnancy, smoking status factors.

Women characteristics

Anti-HPV16

Unadjusted

Final model1


Negative

Positive

%

OR

(95% CI)

OR

(95% CI)


All women

179

305

63.0

Use of hormonal contraceptives

Never

42

45

51.7

1.00

1.00

In the past

49

70

58.8

1.33

(0.76-2.33)

1.33

(0.76-2.33)

Current oral contraceptives

80

161

66.8

1.88

(1.14-3.09)

1.88

(1.14-3.09)

Current injectable

8

29

78.4

3.38

(1.39-8.23)

3.38

(1.39-8.23)

Use of condom

Never

58

108

65.1

1.00

1.00

In the past

74

143

65.9

1.04

(0.68-1.59)

1.12

(0.72-1.73)

Current (last month)

47

54

53.5

0.62

(0.37-1.02)

0.79

(0.46-1.37)

Frequency of condom use

Never or rarely

67

128

65.6

1.00

1.00

Sometimes

30

47

61.0

0.82

(0.48-1.41)

0.91

(0.52-1.59)

Most of the time

32

52

61.9

0.85

(0.50-1.45)

1.04

(0.60-1.81)

Always

46

78

62.9

0.89

(0.56-1.42)

1.01

(0.62-1.65)

Use of condom last sexual intercourse

No

109

226

67.5

1.00

1.00

Yes

70

79

53.0

0.54

(0.37-0.81)

0.66

(0.42-1.03)

Number of pregnancies

0

81

109

57.4

1.00

1.00

1

63

125

66.5

1.47

(0.97-2.24)

1.47

(0.97-2.24)

2

24

43

64.2

1.33

(0.75-2.37)

1.33

(0.75-2.37)

≥ 3

11

28

71.8

1.89

(0.89-4.02)

1.89

(0.89-4.02)

p trend

0.06

0.06

Smoking Status

Never smoked for ≥ 6 months

140

231

62.3

1.00

1.00

Former smoker

15

24

61.5

0.97

(0.49-1.91)

0.97

(0.49-1.91)

Current

24

50

67.6

1.26

(0.74-2.15)

1.26

(0.74-2.15)

Cytology-Hybrid capture, viral load2

Normal/Low viral load

89

102

53.4

1.00

1.00

LSIL/Low viral load

7

17

70.8

2.12

(0.84-5.34)

2.12

(0.84-5.34)

HSIL/Low viral load

5

16

76.2

2.79

(0.98-7.93)

2.79

(0.98-7.93)

Normal/High viral load

24

61

71.8

2.22

(1.28-3.85)

2.22

(1.28-3.85)

LSIL/High viral load

31

58

65.2

1.63

(0.97-2.75)

1.63

(0.97-2.75)

HSIL/High viral load

15

43

75.1

2.50

(1.30-4.81)

2.50

(1.30-4.81)


NOTE. HPV, human papillomavirus; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; LSIL, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; HSIL, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

1 For each variable considered the final model adjusts for all variables that changed the crude estimate of risk by 15% or more.

Use of hormonal contraceptives: was not adjusted for any co-factors since none of the potential confounders evaluated changed the OR estimates by 15% or more.

Use of condom: was adjusted for use of hormonal contraceptives.

Frequency of condom use: was adjusted for use of hormonal contraceptives.

Use of condom last sexual intercourse: was adjusted for use of hormonal contraceptives.

Number of pregnancies, smoking status and cytology-hybrid capture, viral load: were not adjusted for any co-factors since none of the potential confounders evaluated changed the OR estimates by 15% or more.

2 Low viral load defined as hybrid capture rlu/co ≤ 30; High viral load defined as hybrid capture rlu/co > 30.

Porras et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:238   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-238

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