Table 2

Association of HIV status with cervical cytology and prevalence of high-risk HPV types in female sex workers in Mombasa Kenya

Variable

HIV-negative n/N (%)

HIV-positive n/N (%)

P

Risk ratio#

(95%CI)


    Prevalence of high-risk HPV

Any high-risk HPV infection*

N = 503

229 (45.5)

N = 273

200 (73.3)

<0.001

1.7 (1.5-1.9)

Type 16

56 (11.1)

66 (24.2)

<0.001

2.4 (1.7-3.4)

Type 18

34 (6.8)

51 (18.7)

<0.001

2.9 (1.9-4.6)

Type 31

31 (6.2)

33 (12.1)

0.004

2.0 (1.2-3.4)

Type 33

1 (0.2)

3 (1.1)

0.095

4.3 (0.41-45.8)

Type 35

39 (7.8)

49 (18.0)

<0.001

2.7 (1.7-4.1)

Type 39

20 (4.0)

36 (13.2)

<0.001

4.2 (2.3-7.5)

Type 45

18 (3.6)

21 (7.7)

0.012

2.3 (1.3-4.2)

Type 51

32 (6.4)

39 (14.3)

<0.001

2.5 (1.5-4.1)

Type 52

38 (7.6)

70 (25.6)

<0.001

3.7 (2.5-5.6)

Type 53

35 (7.0)

56 (20.5)

<0.001

3.0 (2.0-4.6)

Type 56

24 (4.8)

39 (14.3)

<0.001

2.9 (1.7-4.9)

Type 58

21 (4.2)

15 (5.5)

0.40

1.4 (0.7-2.7)

Type 59

43 (8.6)

36 (13.2)

0.04

1.7 (1.1-2.6)

Type 66

37 (7.4)

40 (14.7)

0.001

2.1 (1.3-3.3)

Type 68

2 (0.4)

6 (2.2)

0.02

5.5 (1.0-29.0)

Mean high-risk HPV types (sd)

0.8 (1.1)

1.8 (1.8)

<0.001


    Low risk HPV

Type 6

N = 503

13 (2.6)

N = 273

10 (3.7)

0.40

1.4 (0.63-3.3)

Type 67

87 (17.3)

84 (30.8)

<0.001

1.8 (1.4-2.4)


    Viral load of high-risk HPV types (n≥1 copy/cell; median (IQR))

Type 16

38; 32.5 (4-472)

52; 145 (12-3278)

0.016

Type 18

18; 12 (4-58)

31; 31 (6-718)

0.23

Type 31

22; 15 (3-572)

25; 208 (58-13 257)

0.02

Type 33

1; 204 (NA)

3; 15 453 (251-45 601)

0.18

Type 35

34; 118 (14-4882)

48; 302 (61-9969)

0.11

Type 39

14; 13 (1-89)

25; 106 (3-2600)

0.06

Type 45

14; 8 (2-24)

21; 49 (4-252)

0.04

Type 51

30; 43 (3-1738)

37; 826 (34-43 983)

0.02

Type 52

31; 12 (3-71)

59; 76 (5-938)

0.05

Type 53

27; 5 (2-14)

47; 31 (1-288)

0.14

Type 56

20; 112 (5.5-829)

31; 219 (20-1511)

0.39

Type 58

12; 16 (4.5-67)

13; 7 (4-32)

0.81

Type 59

21; 27 (3-235)

20; 437 (20-3552)

0.04

Type 66

22; 4 (2-794)

35; 48 (7-1193)

0.07

Type 68

0; 0

1; 1; (NA)

-

Total high-risk HPV viral load

48 (6-756)

811 (33-12 110)

<0.001


    Cervical cytology (Pap smear)

Normal

N = 503

461 (91.7)

N = 269

196 (72.9)

ASC-US/ASC-H

8 (1.6)

6 (2.2)

LSIL

21 (4.2)

54 (20.1)

HSIL

12 (2.4)

13 (4.8)

Invasive carcinoma

1 (0.2)

0 (0)

<0.001


^Infection with HPV type 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68 defined as high-risk HPV infection. *Any detectable HPV viral load >0 copies/cell considered diagnostic. #Age-adjusted risk ratio. LSIL low-grade intraepithelial lesion; HSIL high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion; ASC-US atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; ASC-H atypical squamous cells: cannot exclude high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion. Median copies/cell are rounded to closest whole number. Vari. Cat. Variable category

Luchters et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:18   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-18

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