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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Increase in isolation of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing multidrug resistant non typhoidal Salmonellae in Pakistan

Kauser Jabeen*, Afia Zafar, Seema Irfan, Erum Khan, Vikram Mehraj and Rumina Hasan

Author Affiliations

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2010, 10:101  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-101

Published: 22 April 2010

Abstract

Background

Increasing resistance to quinolones and ceftriaxone in non typhoidal Salmonellae is a global concern. Resistance to quinolone and 3rd generation cephalosporin amongst non typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS) from Pakistan has been reported in this study.

Methods

Retrospective analysis of laboratory data was conducted (1990-2006). NTS were isolated and identified from clinical samples using standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer. Extended spectrum beta lactamase production (ESBL) was detected using combined disc method. Ciprofloxacin sensitivity was detected by nalidixic acid screening method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.

Results

Analysis of 1967 NTS isolates showed a significant increase in ciprofloxacin resistance from 23% in 2002 to 50.5% in 2006, with increased mean MIC values from 0.6 to 1.3 ug/mL. Ceftriaxone resistant NTS also increased and ESBL production was seen in 98.7% isolates. These isolates exhibited high resistance against amoxicillin clavulanic acid (57%), gentamicin (69%), amikacin (44%) and piperacillin tazobactam (30%). No resistance to carbapenem was seen. Ceftriaxone resistance was significantly higher in children <1 year, in invasive isolates and in Salmonella Typhimurium.

Conclusions

Increase in quinolone and ceftriaxone NTS is a serious threat to public health requiring continuous surveillance and use of appropriate screening tests for laboratory detection.