Table 1

Characteristics of the US and English cohorts, age 65+, 2002

Variable

US

(N = 8,299)

England

(N = 5,276)

P value*


Age

.07

65 – 74

51.2

54.0

75 – 84

38.4

35.9

≥ 85

10.4

10.2

Mean ± SE

75.0 ± .14

74.7 ± .12

.06

Gender

<.001

Male

40.5

42.9

Female

59.5

57.1

Education**

<.001

Low

61.3

70.7

Middle

18.9

10.9

High

19.8

18.4

Net worth (2002 US Dollars)

.01

≤ $83,000

29.0

33.5

$83,001 – $318,000

34.9

33.1

> $318,000

36.1

33.4

Mean ± SE

357,700 ± 17,500

251,800 ± 6,400

<.001


Chronic Conditions

Stroke

8.0

6.9

.03

Diabetes

16.4

9.0

<.001

Heart disease

30.9

28.6

.01

Hypertension

56.6

44.8

<.001

Lung disease

11.3

8.1

<.001

Cancer

17.6

8.0

<.001

# of ADLs† impaired

<.001

0

77.9

71.9

1 – 3

19.2

24.4

4 – 6

2.9

3.7

Mean ± SE

.44 ± .02

.55 ± .02

<.001

# of IADLs‡ impaired

<.001

0

86.5

82.6

1 – 3

12.4

16.3

4 – 5

1.1

1.1

Mean ± SE

.23 ± .01

.28 ± .01

.001


CES-D (Depressive symptoms)

<.001

0

43.6

36.6

1 – 3

41.8

45.9

4 – 8

14.6

17.5

Mean ± SE

1.5 ± .04

1.7 ± .03

<.001

Treatment with medications:

Hypertension

(n = 4,664)

(n = 2,368)

90.5

84.9

<.001

Diabetes

(n = 1,389)

(n = 480)

No diabetes treatment

19.7

26.5

.003

Only oral medication

62.4

54.2

Insulin +/- oral med

17.9

19.3

Alcohol intake (days/week)

<.001

0

53.9

15.5

< 1

15.2

33.5

>1 to 2

13.7

24.3

>2

17.2

26.6

Smoking Status

<.001

Never

42.8

35.2

Former

47.7

52.5

Current

9.5

12.3


Values are weighted percentages or means derived using the HRS and ELSA respondent population weights to adjust for the complex sampling design of each survey.

* P value of chi-square or t-test for a significant difference in proportion or mean between countries.

† ADLs indicates Activities of Daily Living (eating, transferring, toileting, dressing, bathing, and walking across a room).

‡ IADLs indicates Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (preparing meals, grocery shopping, making phone calls, taking medications, managing money).

**Education categories – US: Low- ≤ 12 years of school; Mid- 13 to 15 years; High- ≥ 16 years. England: Low- lower than "O-level" (typically 0 to 11 years of school); Mid- "O-level" to lower than "A-level" (typically 12 to 13 years); High- "A-level" or higher (typically > 13 years). Categories based on Banks et al 2006. [2]

Langa et al. BMC Geriatrics 2009 9:23   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-9-23

Open Data