Table 5

Factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviours.

Characteristic

Aggressive verbal behaviours

Bivariate analyses

Regression analyses


Yes n: 497 (21.5%)

No n: 1823 (78.9%)

Crude odds ratio (95% confidence interval)

Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)

    Individual factors

Age (years)

≥ 85 ‡

187 (37.6%)

870 (47.7%)

1.00

1.00

75 to 84

220 (44.3%)

668 (36.6%)

1.53* (1.23–1.91)

1.40 (1.12–1.76)

65 to 74

90 (18.1%)

285 (15.6%)

1.47* (1.11–1.95)

1.18 (0.87–1.60)

Gender

Female ‡

329 (66.2%)

1422 (78.0%)

1.00

1.00

Male

168 (33.8%)

401 (22.0%)

1.81* (1.46–2.25)

1.64* (1.30–2.06)

Length of stay in LTCC (years)

0 to 2 ‡

237 (47.7%)

845 (46.4%)

1.00

3 to 4

96 (19.3%)

336 (18.4%)

1.02 (0.78–1.33)

≥ 5

164 (33.0%)

642 (35.2%)

0.91 (0.73–1.14)

Functional autonomy

Autonomous / semi-autonomous‡

282 (56.8%)

923 (50.7%)

1.00

1.00

Dependent

214 (43.1%)

899 (49.3%)

0.78* (0.64–0.95)

0.78* (0.62–0.99)

Cognitive status

No impairment ‡

76 (15.3%)

395 (21.7%)

1.00

1.00

Mild-moderate impairment

221 (44.5%)

624 (34.3%)

1.82* (1.37–2.43)

1.85* (1.37–2.50)

Severe impairment

199 (40.1%)

803 (44.1%)

1.27 (0.95–1.70)

1.48* (1.06–2.07)

Withdrawal behaviour

No ‡

265 (53.4%)

951 (52.2%)

1.00

Yes

231 (46.6%)

871 (47.8%)

0.95 (0.78–1.16)

Sleep disturbance

No ‡

449 (90.5%)

1725 (94.7%)

1.00

1.00

Yes

47 (9.5%)

97 (5.3%)

1.86* (1.29–2.68)

1.76* (1.21–2.56)

Psychological distress

No ‡

373 (75.1%)

1454 (79.7%)

1.00

1.00

Yes

124 (24.9%)

369 (20.2%)

1.31* (1.04–1.65)

1.19 (0.93–1.51)

    Environmental factors

Use of benzodiazepine drugs

No ‡

261 (52.5%)

1075 (58.9%))

1.00

1.00

Yes

236 (47.5%)

748 (41.0%)

1.30* (1.07–1.59)

1.28* (1.05–1.58)

Use of neuroleptic drugs

No ‡

313 (62.9%)

1359 (74.5%)

1.00

1.00

Yes

184 (37.0%)

464 (25.4%)

1.72* (1.40–2.13)

1.62* (1.30–2.02)

Social visitation.

0 to 3 hours ‡

167 (33.7%)

606 (33.4%)

1.00

4 to 15 hours

176 (35.5%)

560 (30.9%)

1.15 (0.91–1.46)

≥ 16 hours

153 (30.8%)

648 (35.7%)

0.86 (0.68–1.11)

Use of physical restraints

No ‡

325 (65.4%)

1242 (68.1%)

1.00

Yes

172 (34.6%)

581 (31.9%)

0.13 (0.92–1.40)


* Statistically significant p < 0.05

‡ Reference Category

miss. = missing

Voyer et al. BMC Geriatrics 2005 5:13   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-5-13

Open Data