Table 1

Factors associated with both forms of aggressive behaviour (verbal and physical).

Characteristic

Total

Both forms of Aggressive behaviour

Bivariate analyses

Regression analyses


N: 2309 (23 miss.)

Yes n:258 (11.2%)

No n: 2051 (88.8%)

Crude odds ratio (95% confidence interval)

Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)

    Individual factors

Age (years)

≥ 85 ‡

1063 (45.6%)

110 (42.6%)

946 (46.1%)

1.00

1.00

75 to 84

893 (38.3%)

118 (45.7%)

764 (37.3%)

1.33* (1.01–1.75)

1.22 (0.91–1.63)

65 to 74

376 (16.1%)

30 (11.6%)

341 (16.6%)

0.76 (0.50–1.15)

0.61 (0.39–0.96)

Gender

Female ‡

1759 (75.4%)

165 (63.9%)

1579 (77.0%)

1.00

1.00

Male

573 (24.6%)

93 (36.1%)

472 (23.0%)

1.89* (1.43–2.48)

2.13* (1.58–2.86)

Length of stay in LTCC (years)

0 to 2 ‡

1093 (46.9%)

124 (48.1%)

951 (46.34%)

1.00

3 to 4

432 (18.5%)

53 (20.5%)

375 (18.3%)

1.08 (0.77–1.53)

≥ 5

807 (34.6%)

81 (31.4%)

725 (35.4%)

0.86 (0.64–1.15)

Functional autonomy

Autonomous / semi-autonomous‡

1207 (51.9%)

122 (47.3%)

1076 (52.5%)

1.00

Dependent

1117 (48.1%)

136 (52.7%)

974 (47.5%)

1.23 (0.95–1.60)

Cognitive status

No impairment ‡

471 (20.3%)

15 (5.8%)

454 (22.2%)

1.00

1.00

Mild-moderate impairment

847 (36.5%)

91 (35.3%)

749 (36.5%)

3.69* (2.11–6.44)

2.87* (1.62–5.09)

Severe impairment

1006 (43.3%)

152 (58.9%)

847 (41.3%)

5.44* (3.16–9.37)

3.77* (2.12–6.72)

Withdrawal behaviour

No ‡

1219 (52.5%)

98 (37.9%)

1111 (54.2%)

1.00

Yes

1105 (47.6%)

160 (62.0%)

939 (45.8%)

1.93* (1.48–2.52)

Sleep disturbance

No ‡

2180 (93.8%)

230 (89.1%)

1936 (94.4%)

1.00

1.00

Yes

144 (6.2%)

28 (10.8%)

114 (5.6%)

2.07* (1.34–3.20)

1.95* (1.23–3.08)

Psychological distress

No ‡

1838 (78.8%)

187 (72.5%)

1631 (79.5%)

1.00

1.00

Yes

494 (21.2%)

71 (27.5%)

420 (20.5%)

1.47* (1.10–1.98)

1.36* (1.00–1.85)

    Environmental factors

Use of benzodiazepine drugs

No ‡

1344 (57.6%)

136 (52.7%)

1195 (58.3%)

1.00

Yes

988 (42.4%)

122 (47.3%)

856 (41.7%)

1.25 (0.97–1.62)

Use of neuroleptic drugs

No ‡

1683 (72.2%)

138 (53.5%)

1525(74.35%)

1.00

1.00

Yes

649 (27.8%)

120 (46.5%)

526 (25.6%)

2.52* (1.94–3.28)

2.12* (1.61–2.81)

Social visitation.

0 to 3 hours ‡

777 (33.6%)

99 (38.4%)

671 (32.9%)

1.00

1.00

4 to 15 hours

736 (31.8%)

84 (32.6%)

649 (31.8%)

0.89 (0.65–1.21)

0.94 (0.68–1.29)

≥ 16 hours

803 (34.7%)

75 (29.1%)

722 (35.4%)

0.71* (0.52–0.98)

0.90 (0.64–1.26)

Use of physical restraints

No ‡

1576 (67.6%)

137 (53.1%)

1421 (69.3%)

1.00

1.00

Yes

756 (32.4%)

121 (46.9%)

630 (30.7%)

1.99* (1.53–2.59)

1.43* (1.07–1.92)


* Statistically significant p < 0.05

p‡ Reference Category

miss. = missing

Voyer et al. BMC Geriatrics 2005 5:13   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-5-13

Open Data