Table 4

Association of variables with risk of any fall, by severity of fall, among institutionalized older adults in Madrid, Spain
Non-severe Severe
Variables ORa (95% CI) ORa (95% CI) P value b
Male gender 0.99 (0.54-1.81) 1.25 (0.54-2.88) 0.60
Age (per 5 y) 0.92 (0.72-1.17) 1.00 (0.72-1.38) 0.67
No spouse 1.25 (0.60-2.62) 2.60 (0.62-10.87) 0.28
Education 0.54
 Primary 1.61 (0.81-3.20) 0.85 (0.31-2.32)
 Secondary or higher 1.47 (0.54-3.99) 1.08 (0.29-4.03)
Length of stay (years) 0.95
  0-2 1.00 1.00
  3-5 1.27 (0.58-2.79) 1.01 (0.30-3.42)
  ≥ 6 1.41 (0.61-3.24) 1.22 (0.37-4.05)
Facility size (per 50 beds) 1.08 0.99-1.17) 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 0.58
Facility ownership 0.52
 Public 1.00 1.00
 Subsidized 0.74 (0.35-1.55) 1.07 (0.31-3.69)
 Private 0.64 (0.31-1.33) 0.43 (0.14-1.38)
No. of diseases 1.40 (1.26-1.55) 1.47 (1.17-1.84) 0.68
No. of medications 1.31 (1.19-1.44) 1.17 (1.01-1.36) 0.22
Antidepressant use 3.94 (1.87-8.30) 1.28 (0.29-5.64) 0.16
Anxiolytic use 1.53 (0.74-3.20) 0.84 (0.27-2.63) 0.22
Hypnotic use 0.60 (0.19-1.88) 0.41 (0.07-2.28) 0.69
Antipsychotic use 0.99 (0.37-2.68) 0.71 (0.17-3.01) 0.69
Functional dependence 0.89
 Independent (100c) 1.00 1.00
 Mild (91-99) 1.15 (0.44-2.97) 2.50 (0.21-29.45)
 Moderate (61-90) 2.44 (0.80-7.42) 4.72 (0.78-28.49)
 Severe/Total (0-60) 2.79 (0.78-10.01) 6.67 (0.89-49.95)
Use of cane 2.21 (1.02-4.82) 0.85 (0.28-2.62) 0.14
Use of walker 1.22 (0.49-3.06) 2.16 (0.61-7.68) 0.47
Behavioral problems 1.30 (0.53-3.19) 0.76 (0.23-2.47) 0.46
Cognitive status 0.55
  Normal (≤2d) 1.00 1.00
  Mild (3-4) 0.77 (0.26-2.28) 1.64 (0.39-6.99)
  Moderate (5-7) 0.91 (0.37-2.19) 0.34 (0.05-2.39)
  Severe (≥8) 1.84 (0.47-7.23) 1.46 (0.31-7.01)
Vision problems 1.63 (0.82-3.26) 0.68 (0.11-4.15) 0.37
Hearing problems 0.95 (0.29-3.14) 1.80 (0.45-7.10) 0.43
Insomnia 1.91 (0.92-3.96) 0.78 (0.28-2.15) 0.18
Urinary incontinence 2.74 (1.42-5.30) 1.34 (0.49-3.66) 0.20
Physical restraint 0.88 (0.30-2.56) 1.00 (0.27-3.75) 0.85
Poor self-rated health 1.76 (0.95-3.28) 1.32 (0.49-3.55) 0.65
Poor physician-rated health 2.20 (1.24-3.90) 2.77 (0.78-9.81) 0.73
Depressive symptoms 1.17 (1.03-1.33) 1.14 (0.94-1.38) 0.82
Cancer 2.46 (0.99-6.14) 2.94 (0.97-8.92) 0.77
Obstructive pulmonary disease 1.77 (0.88-3.57) 4.26 (1.35-13.46) 0.19
Arrhythmias 2.48 (1.13-5.47) 3.46 (1.32-9.02) 0.54
Hypertension 1.18 (0.61-2.30) 3.02 (1.05-8.68) 0.13
Ischemic heart disease 1.19 (0.51-2.79) 0.79 (0.23-2.74) 0.59
Congestive heart failure 1.73 (0.89-3.35) 1.75 (0.63-4.87) 0.98
Peripheral arterial disease 1.93 (1.06-3.49) 3.23 (1.23-8.52) 0.34
Stroke in past year 2.18 (0.64-7.46) 0.42 (0.05-3.83) 0.22
Diabetes 1.24 (0.58-2.64) 1.09 (0.33-3.62) 0.87
Anemia 2.55 (1.26-5.17) 1.67 (0.75-3.74) 0.40
Alzheimer's disease 0.94 (0.39-2.29) 0.23 (0.02-2.36) 0.20
Other dementias 0.94 (0.39-2.23) 1.41 (0.51-3.89) 0.43
Parkinson's disease 1.63 (0.69-3.84) 0.84 (0.18-3.95) 0.47
Epilepsy 1.64 (0.52-5.16) 3.89 (0.82-18.47) 0.34
Depression 3.70 (1.95-7.03) 1.80 (0.64-5.02) 0.20
Anxiety disorder 2.51 (1.50-4.20) 2.04 (0.90-4.64) 0.65
Arthritis 1.65 (0.85-3.19) 3.68 (1.00-13.58) 0.24

Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; OR = odds ratio.

a Odds ratio of suffering at least one fall, adjusted for age, sex, cognitive status, and functional dependence. The reference base outcome group is non-fallers.

b Two-sided tests of the equality of non-severe and severe fall coefficients.

c Barthel Index score. Severe and total categories were collapsed due to small numbers

d Pfeiffer's Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire score.

Damián et al.

Damián et al. BMC Geriatrics 2013 13:6   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-6

Open Data