Table 3

Lower care level and higher care level by characteristics of study participants
Lower Care-needs level Group1(n = 1,067) Higher Care-needs level Group2(n = 209) χ2 p-value
n % n %
Sex
Female 830 88.7 106 11.3 65.5268 < .0001**
Male 237 69.7 103 30.3
Age
< 75 143 69.8 62 30.2 34.2783 < .0001**
75≦ 924 86.3 147 13.7
Income Level
Lower income level3 1020 84.3 190 15.7 3.1929 0.0740
Higher income level4 39 75.0 13 25.0
Conditions that caused a need for LTC
Respiratory or heart disease 60 83.3 12 16.7 0.0038 0.9505
Others 1000 83.6 196 16.4
Regular hospital visits before entry into the LTCI
Yes 429 77.6 124 22.4 26.0288 < .0001**
No 638 88.2 85 11.8
Period of needing care
< 2 years 481 88.1 65 11.9 14.0790 0.0002**
2 years≦ 571 80.2 141 19.8
Caregiver’s sex
Female 420 71.6 167 28.4 15.7563 < .0001**
Male 192 85.0 34 15.0
Caregiver/applicant dyad
Wife/Husband (living with) 205 67.4 99 32.6 74.8750 < .0001**
Others 829 88.7 106 11.3
Clients living with family or not
Living alone 517 95.9 22 4.1 105.0940 < .0001**
Living with family 537 74.3 186 25.7
Corporation type of care management agency
Medical 282 79.0 75 21.0 7.7551 0.0054**
Non-medical 785 85.4 134 14.6
VNS use
Yes 60 56.6 46 43.4 61.6074 < .0001**
No 1007 86.1 163 13.9
Home-Help Service use
Yes 344 82.5 73 17.5 0.5741 0.4486
No 723 84.2 136 15.8

* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 Using the chi-squared test.

1 Lower care-needs level group: Support-required/care levels 1–2.

2 Higher care-needs level group: Care levels 3–5.

3 Lower income level: not paying personal income tax.

4 Higher income level: paying personal income tax.

Kashiwagi et al.

Kashiwagi et al. BMC Geriatrics 2013 13:1   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-1

Open Data