Table 3

Results of spatio-temporal gait analysis
Condition/Parameters Dance Group (n = 11) Pwithin Control Group (n = 10) Pwithin Pbetween r
pre post pre post
normal
Velocity [cm/s] 80.4 (72.9; 89.1) 88.3 (69.2; 106.2) 0.248 69.0 (61.1; 82.7) 82.2 (73.8; 101.8) 0.059° 0.481 0.15
Cadence [steps/min] 95.5 (93.3; 102.5) 97.5 (96.0; 111.8) 0.016* 93.9 (80.2; 99.9) 104.2 (89.9; 112.3) 0.022* 0.260 0.25
Step time [s] 0.63 (0.59; 0.64) 0.62 (0.54; 0.63) 0.016* 0.64 (0.60; 0.75) 0.58 (0.54; 0.67) 0.022* 0.205 0.28
Cycle time [s] 1.26 (1.17; 1.29) 1.23 (1.07; 1.24) 0.016* 1.28 (1.20; 1.49) 1.15 (1.07; 1.34) 0.022* 0.217 0.27
Stance time [s] 0.82 (0.80; 0.86) 0.78 (0.72; 0.84) 0.021* 0.86 (0.78; 1.03) 0.75 (0.70; 0.92) 0.037* 0.191 0.29
Single support time [s] 0.42 (0.39; 0.44) 0.41 (0.36; 0.43) 0.041* 0.43 (0.41; 0.47) 0.39 (0.36; 0.43) 0.013* 0.095° 0.36+
Double support time [s] 0.41 (0.38; 0.43) 0.37 (0.31; 0.43) 0.062° 0.44 (0.37; 0.56) 0.36 (0.32; 0.49) 0.047* 0.259 0.25
Step length [cm] 50.7 (45.7; 53.0) 52.7 (42.6; 56.3) 0.477 46.6 (43.7; 52.2) 48.8 (46.0; 54.9) 0.203 0.725 0.08
fast
Velocity [cm/s] 124.7 (89.9; 147.4) 132.7 (93.2; 149.8) 0.091° 112.1 (99.0; 124.0) 114.7 (99.6; 136.8) 0.285 0.778 0.06
Cadence [steps/min] 122.6 (113.8; 128.7) 127.1 (118.2; 134.5) 0.033* 118.2 (106.0; 129.1) 126.0 (105.7; 135.7) 0.203 0.888 0.03
Step time [s] 0.49 (0.47; 0.53) 0.47 (0.45; 0.51) 0.050* 0.51 (0.46; 0.57) 0.48 (0.44; 0.57) 0.139 0.972 0.01
Cycle time [s] 0.98 (0.93; 1.05) 0.94 (0.89; 1.02) 0.062 1.02 (0.93; 1.13) 0.96 (0.88; 1.13) 0.139 0.972 0.01
Stance time [s] 0.62 (0.58; 071) 0.60 (0.57; 0.66) 0.041* 0.65 (0.61; 0.72) 0.60 (0.55; 0.74) 0.169 0.944 0.02
Single support time [s] 0.37 (0.34; 0.38) 0.35 (0.32; 0.39) 0.110 0.38 (0.33; 0.39) 0.36 (0.33; 0.38) 0.169 0.669 0.09
Double support time [s] 0.25 (0.23, 0.33) 0.26 (0.22; 0.31) 0.131 0.30 (0.25; 0.32) 0.24 (0.22; 0.34) 0.203 0.804 0.05
Step length [cm] 58.4 (53.1; 66.7) 59.2 (50.5; 69.8) 0.594 56.0 (52.1; 61.0) 55.3 (50.4; 62.6) 0.575 0.549 0.13
normalcog
Velocity [cm/s] 65.4 (57.3; 87.4) 82.8 (60.0; 97.9) 0.050* 60.0 (51.7; 71.8) 63.2 (55.8; 84.4) 0.028* 0.673 0.09
Cadence [steps/min] 87.0 (82.4, 93.8) 101.0 (97.2; 103.3) 0.026* 82.7 (73.9; 100.9) 96.8 (74.5; 103.6) 0.139 0.481 0.15
Step time [s] 0.69 (0.64; 0.73) 0.60 (0.58; 0.62) 0.013* 0.73 (0.60; 0.84) 0.62 (0.58; 0.81) 0.074° 0.888 0.03
Cycle time [s] 1.39 (1.28; 1.45) 1.19 (1.17; 1.24) 0.013* 1.46 (1.19; 1.64) 1.24 (1.16; 1.61) 0.093° 0.573 0.12
Stance time [s] 0.94 (0.85; 0.99) 0.79 (0.75; 0.83) 0.010* 1.00 (0.78; 1.15) 0.81 (0.79; 1.08) 0.059° 0.672 0.09
Single support time [s] 0.45 (0.43; 0.47) 0.41 (0.39; 0.44) 0.013* 0.46 (0.40; 0.48) 0.43 (0.38; 0.50) 0.445 0.228 0.26
Double support time [s] 0.48 (0.41; 0.55) 0.39 (0.35; 0.41) 0.016* 0.55 (0.39; 0.67) 0.43 (0.39; 0.59) 0.059° 0.888 0.03
Step length [cm] 46.73 (40.3; 51.1) 50.5 (44.3; 56.6) 0.131 43.4 (37.5; 52.4) 46.3 (38.1; 54.6) 0.059° 0.751 0.07
fastcog
Velocity [cm/s] 87.9 (68.6; 103.2) 107.5 (74.1; 115.6) 0.013* 80.1 (61.0; 100.0) 87.1 (59.0; 103.2) 0.386 0.041* 0.45+
Cadence [steps/min] 99.1 (94.8; 105.5) 109.7 (101.7; 117.4) 0.006* 91.8 (88.0; 108.8) 104.1 (76.7; 114.1) 0.445 0.057° 0.42+
Step time [s] 0.61 (0.57; 0.63) 0.55 (0.51, 0.59) 0.006* 0.65 (0.55; 0.68) 0.58 (0.53; 0.78) 0.799 0.062° 0.41+
Cycle time [s] 1.21 (1.14; 1.26) 1.09 (1.02; 1.19) 0.006* 1.31 (1.10; 1.37) 1.15 (1.05; 1.57) 0.799 0.091° 0.37+
Stance time [s] 0.78 (0.71, 0.84) 0.71 (0.64; 0.78) 0.008* 0.86 (0.72; 0.93) 0.76 (0.70; 1.03) 0.721 0.121 0.34+
Single support time [s] 0.43 (0.39; 0.43) 0.38 (0.37; 0.41) 0.006* 0.42 (0.38, 0.46) 0.39 (0.37; 0.50) 0.799 0.029* 0.48+
Double support time [s] 0.38 (0.32; 0.40) 0.32 (0.28; 0.37) 0.013* 0.39 (0.35; 0.51) 0.38 (0.31; 0.51) 0.646 0.260 0.25
Step length [cm] 53.0 (44.2; 58.8) 55.2 (44.8; 62.6) 0.110 50.7 (41.2; 57.8) 51.2 (38.6; 60.0) 0.333 0.324 0.22

Notes: Values are displayed as group medians with interquartile ranges (q1; q3) due to non-normal distribution of data; * = significant within-group differences pre-post (Pwithin ≤ 0.05) calculated with Wilcoxon signed rank test; ° = trend to significance (Pwithin ≤ 0.10); * = significant between-group differences after intervention phase (Pbetween ≤ 0.05) calculated with Mann–Whitney-U-test; ° = trend to significance (Pbetween ≤ .10).

Abbreviations:Pwithin: P-value for within-group comparison; Pbetween: P-value for between-groups comparison; r: effect size (r = 0.1: small effect, +r = 0.3: medium effect); normal: self-selected walking speed; fast: fast walking; normalcog: self-selected walking speed with additional cognitive task; fastcog: fast walking speed with additional cognitive task.

Pichierri et al.

Pichierri et al. BMC Geriatrics 2012 12:74   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-12-74

Open Data