Table 1

Pool of EBPI categories [2].

EBPI categories with short explanations


Content of information and meta-information

Description of how patients should be informed before medical interventions and which criteria of transparency should be considered.


Quality of evidence

Authors should use a clear system for grading the quality of evidence and for the representation of strength of recommendation.


Patient-oriented outcome measures

Patient-oriented or disease-oriented outcomes should be included.


Presentation of numerical data

Existing evidence about the way how numerical data is presented should be considered.


Verbal presentation of risk

Risk communication should comprise not only numerical but also verbal descriptors.


Diagrams, graphics and charts

An adequate way of representing numerical information should be chosen.


Loss and gain framing

Information on gain and loss should be represented in a balanced manner.


Pictures and drawings

Written text should be combined with appropriate cartoons, pictures, pictograms, drawings, and photographs.


Patient narratives

Patient narratives are assumed to improve comprehensibility and memorability of information.


Consideration of cultural aspects

Health information should consider cultural aspects such as religiousness, masculinity versus femininity.



Existing evidence about how the layout can support reading and comprehension should be considered.



Plain language in a non-alarmist and non-patronising way is recommended for enhancing understanding.


Development process

Consumers should be involved in the development process of the information.

Lins et al. BMC Geriatrics 2011 11:26   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-11-26

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